Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dating of the Cultural Layers from Vilnius Lower Castle, East Lithuania: Implications for Chronological Attribution and Environmental History

  • J Mažeika (a1), P Blaževičius (a2), M Stančikaitė (a1) and D Kisielienė (a1)

Abstract

Complex interdisciplinary studies carried out in the territory of the Vilnius Lower Castle, E Lithuania, were used to construct a chronological framework based on radiocarbon data and archaeological information. Bulk samples (wood and sediment) were collected from an approximately 3-m core that crossed cultural layers and underlying strata. 14C dates indicate that the underlying bed possibly formed during the 6th century AD, although no archaeological finds were discovered there. Paleobotanical (pollen and plant macrofossil) investigations reveal evidence of agriculture that points to the existence of a permanent settlement in the area at that time. The chronological data indicates a sedimentation hiatus before the onset of the deposition of the cultural layer in the studied area. The 14C dates showed that the formation of the cultural bed began during the late 13th–early 14th centuries AD, that is, earlier than expected according to the archaeological record. The ongoing deposition of the cultural beds continued throughout the middle to latter half of the 14th century AD as revealed by the archaeological records and confirmed by well-correlated 14C results. After some decline in human activity in the middle of the 14th century AD, a subsequent ongoing development of the open landscape, along with intensive agriculture, points to an increase in human activity during the second half of the 14th century AD. The first half of the 15th century AD was marked by intensive exploitation of the territory, indicating a period of economic and cultural prosperity. The chronological framework indicates that the investigated cultural beds continued forming until the first half of the 16th century AD.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dating of the Cultural Layers from Vilnius Lower Castle, East Lithuania: Implications for Chronological Attribution and Environmental History
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dating of the Cultural Layers from Vilnius Lower Castle, East Lithuania: Implications for Chronological Attribution and Environmental History
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dating of the Cultural Layers from Vilnius Lower Castle, East Lithuania: Implications for Chronological Attribution and Environmental History
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Email: mazeika@geo.lt

References

Hide All
Ammann, B, Lotter, AF. 1989. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy on the Swiss Plateau. Boreas 18(2):109–26.
Arslanov, KhA. 1985. Radiocarbon: Geochemistry and Geochronology. Leningrad. In Russian.
Behre, KE, Jacomet, S. 1991. The ecological interpretation of archaeobotanical data. In: van Zeist, W, Wasylikowa, K, Behre, KE, editors. Progress in Old World Palaeoethnobotany. Rotterdam: Balkema. p 81108.
Bowman, S. 1995. Radiocarbon Dating. London: British Museum.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the OxCal program. Radiocarbon 37(2):425–30.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 43(2A):355–63.
Bumblauskas, A. 2005. Senosios Lietuvos istorija 1009–1795 [History of Ancient Lithuania 1009–1795]. Vilnius: R. Paknio leidykla.
Butrimas, A. 1992. Spigino Mezolito kapai (Mesolithic graves on Spiginas Island). Lietuvos archeologija 8:410. In Lithuanian.
Erdtman, G. 1936. New methods in pollen analysis. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 30:154–64.
Gaigalas, A. 1999. Geological foundation and geomorphological conditions of the Lower Castle of Vilnius. In: Urbanavičius, V, editor. Vilniaus Žemutinės pilies rmai (1994–1995 metų tyrimai) Vilnius: Leidybos centras. p 320–1.
Grichiuk, VP. 1940. Processing of deposits poor in the organic material for pollen analysis. In: Grichiuk, VP. Problems of the Physical Geography. Moscow: Nauka. p 4068. In Russian.
Grigas, A. 1986. Lietuvos augalu vaisiai ir sėklos [Fruits and seeds of Lithuanian plants]. Vilnius: Mokslas.
Grimm, EC. 1992. TILIA and TILIA-GRAPH: PC spreadsheet and graphics program. In: 8th International Palynological Congress. Program and Abstracts. Aix-en-Provence, France.
Gudzinskas, Z. 1999. Lietuvos induočiai augalai [Vascular Plants of Lithuania]. Vilnius: Institute of Botany.
Guobytė, R. 2002. Lithuanian surface: geology, geomorphology and deglaciation [abstract of PhD dissertation]. Vilnius. 31 p.
Gupta, SH, Polach, HA. 1985. Radiocarbon Practices at ANU, Handbook. Canberra: Australian National University.
Jacquat, Ch. 1988. Hauterive-Champréveyres, 1. Les plantes de l'âge du Bronze. Catalogue des fruits et graines. Archéologie neuchâteloise 7. Saint-Blaise: Editions du Ruau.
Kitkauskas, N. 1989. Vilniaus Pilys. Statyba ir architektra [Vilnius Castle. Construction and Architecture]. Vilnius: Mokslas.
Kitkauskas, N. 2001. Vilniaus pilių architektros raida. Lietuvos pilių archeologija. [Development of the architecture of Vilnius Castles. Archaeology of Lithuanian Castles]. Vilnius: Klaipėda. p 153–72.
Kovaliukh, NN, Skripkin, VV. 1994. An universal technology for oxidation of carbon-containing materials for radiocarbon dating. In: Abstracts and Papers of Conference on Geochronology and Dendrochronology of Old Town's and Radiocarbon Dating of Archaeological Findings. Vilnius, Lithuania, 31 October–4 November. Vilnius: Vilnius University Press. p 3742.
Kuncevičius, A. 2005. Lietuvos viduramžių archeologija [Lithuanian Medieval Archaeology]. Vilnius: Versus aureus.
Latałowa, M. 1999. Palaeoecological reconstruction of the environmental conditions and economy in the early medieval Wolin—against a background of the Holocene history of the landscape. Acta Palaeobotanica 39(2):183271.
Latałowa, M, Badura, M, Jarosińska, J. 2003. Archaeobotanical samples from non-specific urban contexts as a tool for reconstructing environmental conditions (examples from Elblag and Kołobrzeg, northern Poland). Vegetation History Archaeobotany 12:93104.
Moore, PD, Webb, JA, Collinson, ME. 1991. Pollen Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pazdur, MF, Awsiuk, R, Goslar, T, Pazdur, A. 1994. Chronologia radiowęglowa początków osadnictwa w Wolinie i zeglugi u ujścia Odry [Radiocarbon chronology of the Wolin settlement and navigation at the mouth of Odra River]. Geochronometria 9:127–95. In Polish.
Pukienė, R, Ožalas, E. 2007. Medieval oak chronology from the Vilnius Lower Castle. Dendrochronologia 24:137–43.
Pukienė, R. 2007. Mediniai XIV a. kelio grindiniai Vilniaus Žemutinėje Pilyje. Dendrochronologinė analizė ir datavimas [Wooden road pavements of the 14th century A.D. in the Vilnius Lower Castle. Dendrochronological analysis and dating]. In: Glemža, E, editor. Vilniaus Žemutinė Pilis XIV a.-XIX a. pradžioje. Vilnius: Lietuvos Pilys. p 182–94.
Reimer, PJ, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Bertrand, CJH, Blackwell, PG, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Cutler, KB, Damon, PE, Edwards, RL, Fairbanks, RG, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, TP, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kromer, B, McCormac, G, Manning, S, Bronk Ramsey, C, Reimer, RW, Remmele, S, Southon, JR, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, FW, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2004. IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0–26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46(3):1029–58.
Rimantienė, R. 2005. Die Steinzeit Fischer an der Ostseelagune in Litauen. Vilnius: Lietuvos Nacionalinis Muziejus. In German with English summary.
Stančikaitė, M, Kisielienė, D, Mažeika, J, Blaževičius, P. 2008. Environmental conditions and human interference during the 6th and 13th–15th centuries A.D. at Vilnius Lower Castle, east Lithuania. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17(1):239–50.
Steponavičienė, D. 2007. The Luxury of Vilnius Court of Lithuanian Grand Duke in 13th-Early 16th Century. Vilnius: Versus Aureus.
Stuiver, M, Reimer, PJ, Braziunas, TF. 1998. High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples. Radiocarbon 40(3):1127–51.
Tautavičius, A, Urbanavičius, V. 1995. Archeologiniai tyrimai [Archeological investigations]. In: Tautavičius, A, editor. Vilniaus Žemutinės pilies rmai (1990–1993 metų tyrimai). Vilnius: Leidybos centras. p 112–32.
Urbanavičius, V. 2003. Vilniaus Žlemutinės pilies rmai, 1996–1998 metų tyrimai [The Lower Castle of the Vilnius Palace, Investigations of 1996–1998]. Vilnius: Sapnų sala.
Veski, S, Heinsalu, A, Klassen, V, Kriiska, A, Lõugas, L, Poska, A, Saluäär, U. 2005. Early Holocene coastal settlements and palaeoenvironment on the shore of the Baltic Sea at Pärnu, southwestern Estonia. Quaternary International 130(1):7585.
Zagorska, I. 2006. Radiocarbon chronology of the Zvejnieki burials. In: Larsson, L, Zagorska, I, editors. Back to the origin. New research in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Zvejnieki cemetery and environment, northern Latvia. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia 8(52):91115.

Dating of the Cultural Layers from Vilnius Lower Castle, East Lithuania: Implications for Chronological Attribution and Environmental History

  • J Mažeika (a1), P Blaževičius (a2), M Stančikaitė (a1) and D Kisielienė (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed