Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Taxonomic overview and tusk growth analyses of Ziegler Reservoir proboscideans

  • Daniel C. Fisher (a1) (a2), Michael D. Cherney (a1) (a2), Cody Newton (a3) (a4), Adam N. Rountrey (a1) (a5), Zachary T. Calamari (a1) (a2) (a6), Richard K. Stucky (a3), Carol Lucking (a3) and Lesley Petrie (a7)...

Abstract

At an altitude of 2705 m in the Colorado Rockies (USA), the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site gives a rare look at a high-elevation ecosystem from the late Pleistocene (especially MIS 5) of North America. Remains of more than four mammoths and about 35 mastodons dominate the macrofossil assemblage. Mammoth remains are attributed to Mammuthus columbi, and mastodon remains are referred to the well-known, continent-wide Mammut americanum. Mastodon remains occur within and between several lake-margin slump deposits. Their deposition must therefore have occurred as events that were to some degree separate in time. We treat the mastodon assemblage in each stratigraphic unit as a source of information on environmental conditions during the lives of these individuals. Mastodon mandibular tusks are abundant at the site and represent both males and females, from calves to full-grown adults. This study presents the first attempt to use microCT, thin-section, and isotope records from mandibular tusks to reconstruct features of life-history. We recognize an up-section trend in δ18O profiles toward higher values, suggestive of warmer temperatures. Throughout this sequence, mastodon growth histories show low mean sensitivities suggestive of low levels of environmental stress. This work helps frame expectations for assessing environmental pressures on terminal Pleistocene populations.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Fax: + 1 734 936 1380.E-mail address: dcfisher@umich.edu (D.C. Fisher).

References

Hide All
Agenbroad, L.D. Taxonomy of North American Mammuthus and biometrics of the Hot Springs mammoths. Agenbroad, L.D., and Mead, J.I. The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. (1994). The Mammoth Site, Hot Springs, South Dakota. 158207.
Barbour, E.H. The American mastodon with mandibular tusks. Nebraska State Museum Bulletin 19, 1 (1931). 163170.
Black, B.A. Climate-driven synchrony across tree, bivalve, and rockfish growth-increment chronologies of the northeast Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378, (2009). 3746.
Bocherens, H. Isotopic biogeochemistry and the paleoecology of the mammoth steppe fauna. Reumer, J.W.F., de Vos, J., and Mol, D. Advances in Mammoth Research. Deinsea 9, (2003). 5776.
Bunn, A.G. A dendrochronology program library in R (dplR). Dendrochronologia 26, (2008). 115124.
Butler, P.G., Wanamaker, A.D., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A., and Reynolds, D.J. Variability of marine climate on the North Icelandic Shelf in a 1357-year proxy archive based on growth increments in the bivalve Arctica islandica . Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 373, (2013). 141151.
Cherney, M.D., Fisher, D.C., Rountrey, A.N., and Calamari, Z.T. Isotope analyses support use of CT scans for identifying annual increments in Snowmass mastodon mandibular tusks. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Supplement, 72nd Annual Meeting, Program and Abstracts 77, (2012).
Cook, E.R., and Peters, K. The smoothing spline: a new approach to standardizing forest interior tree-ring width series for dendroclimatic studies. Tree-Ring Bulletin 41, (1981). 4553.
Creber, G.T. Tree rings: a natural data-storage system. Biological Reviews 52, (1977). 349383.
Dansgaard, W. Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16, (1964). 436468.
DeNiro, M.J. Postmortem preservation and alteration of in vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary reconstruction. Nature 317, (1985). 806809.
DeNiro, M.J., and Epstein, S. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45, (1981). 341351.
Dettman, D.L., Flessa, K.W., Roopnarine, P.D., Schöne, B.R., and Goodwin, D.H. The use of oxygen isotope variation in shells of estuarine mollusks as a quantitative record of seasonal and annual Colorado River discharge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, (2003). 12531263.
Douglass, A.E. Evidence of climatic effects in the annual rings of trees. Ecology 1, (1920). 2432.
Enk, J., Debruyne, R., Devault, A., King, C.E., Treangen, T., O'Rourke, D., Slazberg, S.L., Fisher, D., MacPhee, R., and Poinar, H. Complete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammoths. Genome Biology 12, R51 (2011). 18.
Falconer, H. On the species of mastodon and elephant occurring in the fossil state in Great Britain. Part 1. Mastodon . Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 13, (1857). 307360.
Fisher, D.C. Mastodont procurement by Paleoindians of the Great Lakes region: hunting or scavenging?. Nitecki, M.H., and Nitecki, D.V. The Evolution of Human Hunting. (1987). Plenum Press, New York. 309421.
Fisher, D.C. Season of death of the Hiscock mastodonts. Laub, R.S., Miller, N.G., and Steadman, D.W. Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Paleoecology and Archaeology of the Eastern Great Lakes Region. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 33, (1988). 115125.
Fisher, D.C. Extinction of proboscideans in North America. Shoshani, J., and Tassy, P. The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and Their Relatives. (1996). Oxford University Press, Oxford. 296315.
Fisher, D.C. Taphonomy and paleobiology of the Hyde Park mastodon. Allmon, W.D., and Nester, P.L. Mastodon Paleobiology, Taphonomy, and Paleoenvironment in the Late Pleistocene of New York State: Studies on the Hyde Park, Chemung, and North Java Sites. Palaeontographica Americana 61, (2008). 197290.
Fisher, D.C. Paleobiology and extinction of proboscideans in the Great Lakes region of North America. Haynes, G. American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene. (2009). Springer, Dordrecht. 5575.
Fisher, D.C., and Fox, D.L. Season of death and terminal growth histories of Hiscock mastodons. Laub, R.S. The Hiscock Site: Late Pleistocene and Holocene Paleoecology and Archaeology of Western New York State. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 37, (2003). 83101.
Fisher, D.C., and Fox, D.L. Five years in the life of an Aucilla River mastodon. Webb, S.D. First Floridians and Last Mastodons: The Page–Ladson Site in the Aucilla River. (2006). Springer, Dordrecht. 343377.
Fisher, D.C., Beld, S.G., and Rountrey, A.N. Tusk record of the North Java mastodon. Allmon, W.D., and Nester, P.L. Mastodon Paleobiology, Taphonomy, and Paleoenvironment in the Late Pleistocene of New York State: Studies on the Hyde Park, Chemung, and North Java Sites. Palaeontographica Americana 61, (2008). 417463.
Fritts, H.C. Tree Rings and Climate. (1976). Academic Press, New York. (567 pp.)
Gaebler, O.H., Vitti, T.G., and Vukmirovich, R. Isotope effects in metabolism of 14N and 15N from unlabeled dietary proteins. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 44, (1966). 12491257.
Graham, R. Descriptions of the dentitions and stylohyoids of Mammuthus columbi from the Colby Site. Frison, G.C., and Todd, L.C. The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. (1986). University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 171190.
Green, J.L., Hulbert, R.C. Jr. The deciduous premolars of Mammut americanum (Mammalia, Proboscidea). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25, (2006). 702715.
Hay, O.P. The Pleistocene mammals of Iowa. Iowa Geological Survey Annual Reports 23, (1914). 1662.
Haynes, G. Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Elephants. (1991). Elsevier Inc., Cambridge. (413 pp.)
Hobson, K.A., Alisauskas, R.T., and Clark, R.G. Stable-nitrogen isotope enrichment in avian tissues due to fasting and nutritional stress: implications for isotopic analysis of diet. The Condor 95, (1993). 388394.
Kerr, R. The Animal Kingdom or Zoological System, of the Celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus …, London [Complete Citation, Together with C. Linnaeus and J.F. Gmelin, in Osborn, H.F., 1936. Proboscidea. The American Museum Press, New York, p. 782]. (1792).
Klein, R.G., and Cruz-Uribe, K. The Analysis of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites. (1984). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (xii + 266 pp.)
Koch, P.L. Isotopic reconstruction of past continental environments. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 26, (1998). 573613.
Koch, P.L., Fisher, D.C., and Dettman, D. Oxygen isotope variation in the tusks of extinct proboscideans: a measure of season of death and seasonality. Geology 17, (1989). 515519.
Koch, P.L., Fogel, M.L., and Tuross, N. Tracing the diets of fossil animals using stable isotopes. Lajtha, K., and Michener, B. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science. (1994). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. 6392.
Koch, P.L., Tuross, N., and Fogel, M.L. The effects of sample treatment and diagenesis on the isotopic integrity of carbonate in biogenic hydroxylapatite. Journal of Archaeological Science 24, (1997). 417429.
Koch, P.L., Hoppe, K.A., and Webb, S.D. The isotopic ecology of late Pleistocene mammals in North America, Part 1. Florida. Chemical Geology 152, (1998). 119138.
Kohn, M.J., and Welker, J.M. On the temperature correlation of δ18O in modern precipitation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 231, (2005). 8796.
Laws, R.M. Age criteria for the African elephant, Loxodonta a. africana . East African Wildlife Journal 4, (1966). 137.
Laxson, T.A. Geospatial Analysis of Mean Sensitivity in Pinus strobus . M.A. dissertation (2011). The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, (121 pp.)
Lechler, A.R., and Niemi, N.A. The influence of snow sublimation on the isotopic composition of spring and surface waters in the southwestern United States: implications for stable isotope-based paleoaltimetry and hydrologic studies. Geological Society of America Bulletin 124, 3/4 (2011). 318334.
Maglio, V.J. Origin and evolution of the Elephantidae . Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 63, (1973). 1149.
Mahan, S.A., Gray, H.J., Pigati, J.S., Wilson, J., Lifton, N.A., Paces, J., and Blaauw, M. A geochronologic framework for the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 490503. (in this volume)
Miller, I.M., Pigati, J.S., Anderson, R.S., Johnson, K.R., Mahan, S.A., Ager, T.A., Baker, R.G., Blaauw, M., Bright, J., Brown, P.M., Bryant, B., Calamari, Z.T., Carrara, P.E., Cherney, M.D., Demboski, J.R., Elias, S.A., Fisher, D.C., Gray, H.J., Haskett, D.R., Honke, J.S., Jackson, S.T., Jiménez-Moreno, G., Kline, D., Leonard, E.M., Lifton, N.A., Lucking, C., McDonald, H.G., Miller, D.M., Muhs, D.R., Nash, S.E., Newton, C., Paces, J.B., Petrie, L., Plummer, M.A., Porinchu, D.F., Rountrey, A.N., Scott, E., Sertich, J.J.W., Sharpe, S.E., Skipp, G.L., Strickland, L.E., Stucky, R.K., Thompson, R.S., and Wilson, J. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6–4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado USA. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 618634. (in this volume)
Pigati, J.S., Miller, I.M., Johnson, K.R., Honke, J.S., Carrara, P.E., Muhs, D.R., Skipp, G., and Bryant, B. Geologic setting and stratigraphy of the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 477489. (in this volume)
Pinsof, J.D. The Late Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from the American Falls Area, Southeastern Idaho. Ph.D. dissertation (1992). Idaho State University, (399 pp.)
Rountrey, A.N. Life Histories of Juvenile Woolly Mammoths from Siberia: Stable Isotope and Elemental Analyses of Tooth Dentin. Unpublished dissertation (2009). University of Michigan, (xiii + 331 pp.)
Rountrey, A.N., Fisher, D.C., Vartanyan, S., and Fox, D.L. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of a juvenile woolly mammoth tusk: evidence of weaning. Quaternary International 169–170, (2007). 166173.
Rozanski, K., Araguás-Araguás, L., and Gonfiantini, R. Isotopic patterns in modern global precipitation. Swart, J.P., Lohmann, K.C., McKenzie, J., and Savin, S. Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Records. American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph 78, (1993). 136.
Saunders, J.J. The Distribution and Taxonomy of Mammuthus in Arizona. Unpublished M.S. thesis (1970). University of Arizona, (115 pp.)
Saunders, J.J. Late Pleistocene vertebrates of the western Ozark Highland, Missouri. Illinois State Museum Reports of Investigations 33, (1977). 1118.
Sharpe, S.E., and Bright, J. A high-elevation MIS 5 hydrologic record using mollusks and ostracodes from Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA. Quaternary Research 82, (2014). 604617. (in this volume)
Skeels, M.A. The mastodons and mammoths of Michigan. Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Papers 47, (1962). 101133.
Smith, K.M., and Fisher, D.C. Sexual dimorphism of structures showing indeterminate growth: tusks of American mastodons (Mammut americanum). Paleobiology 37, (2011). 175194.
Trapani, J., and Fisher, D.C. Discriminating proboscidean taxa using features of the Schreger pattern in tusk dentin. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, (2003). 429438.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 1

 Word (94 KB)
94 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 2

 Word (13 KB)
13 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 3

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 4

 Word (113 KB)
113 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 5

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 6

 PDF (2.6 MB)
2.6 MB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 7

 PDF (4.5 MB)
4.5 MB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Fisher et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material 8

 PDF (2.5 MB)
2.5 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed