Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Paleoecology of a Northern Michigan Lake and the Relationship among Climate, Vegetation, and Great Lakes Water Levels

  • Robert K. Booth (a1), Stephen T. Jackson (a1) and Todd A. Thompson (a2)

Abstract

We reconstructed Holocene water-level and vegetation dynamics based on pollen and plant macrofossils from a coastal lake in Upper Michigan. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that major fluctuations in Great Lakes water levels resulted in part from climatic changes. We also used our data to provide temporal constraints to the mid-Holocene dry period in Upper Michigan. From 9600 to 8600 cal yr B.P. a shallow, lacustrine environment characterized the Mud Lake basin. A Sphagnum-dominated wetland occupied the basin during the mid-Holocene dry period (∼8600 to 6600 cal yr B.P.). The basin flooded at 6600 cal yr B.P. as a result of rising water levels associated with the onset of the Nipissing I phase of ancestral Lake Superior. This flooding event occurred contemporaneously with a well-documented regional expansion of Tsuga. Betula pollen increased during the Nipissing II phase (4500 cal yr B.P.). Macrofossil evidence from Mud Lake suggests that Betula alleghaniensis expansion was primarily responsible for the rising Betula pollen percentages. Major regional and local vegetational changes were associated with all the major Holocene highstands of the western Great Lakes (Nipissing I, Nipissing II, and Algoma). Traditional interpretations of Great Lakes water-level history should be revised to include a major role of climate.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Baedke, S.J., and Thompson, T.A. A 4,700-year record of lake level and isostasy for Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 26, (2000). 416426.
Baker, R.G., Maher, L.J., Chumbley, C.A., and Van Zant, K.L. Patterns of Holocene environmental change in the Midwestern United States. Quaternary Research 37, (1992). 379389.
Baker, R.G., Bettis, E.A. III., Schwert, D.P., Horton, D.G., Chumbley, C.A., Gonzalez, L.A., and Reagan, M.K. Holocene paleoenvironments of northeast Iowa. Ecological Monographs 66, (1996). 203234.
Baker, R.G., Fredlund, G.G., Mandel, R.D., Bettis, E.A. III. Holocene environments of the central Great Plains: Multi-proxy evidence from alluvial sequences, southeastern Nebraska. Quaternary International 67, (2000). 7588.
Barber, K.E., Maddy, D., Rose, N., Stevenson, A.C., Stoneman, R., and Thompson, R. Replicated proxy-climate signals over the last 2000 yr from two distant UK peat bogs: New evidence for regional palaeoclimate teleconnections. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, (2000). 481487.
Bartlein, P.J., Webb, T. III., and Fleri, E. Holocene climatic changes in the northern Midwest: Pollen-derived estimates. Quaternary Research 22, (1984). 361374.
Brubaker, L.B. Postglacial forest patterns associated with till and outwash in northcentral upper Michigan. Quaternary Research 5, (1975). 499527.
Brugam, R.B., and Johnson, S.M. Holocene lake-level rise in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA, as indicated by peatland growth. The Holocene 7, (1997). 355359.
Brugam, R.B., Giorgi, M., Sesvold, C., Johnson, S.M., and Almos, R. Holocene vegetation history in the Sylvania Wilderness Area of the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The American Midland Naturalist 137, (1997). 6271.
Chrzastowski, M.J., and Thompson, T.A. Late Wisconsinan and Holocene coastal evolution of the southern shore of Lake Michigan. Quaternary Coasts of the United States: Marine and Lacustrine Systems. (1992). p. 397–412
Davis, M.B. Climatic interpretation of pollen in Quaternary sediments. Walker, D., and Guppy, J.C. Biology and Quaternary Environments. (1978). Australian Academy of Science, Canberra City.
Davis, M.B. Invasions of forest communities during the Holocene: Beech and hemlock in the Great Lakes region. Gray, A.J., Crawley, M.J., and Edwards, P.J. Colonization, Succession and Stability. (1987). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. 373393.
Davis, M.B., Woods, K.D., Webb, S.L., and Futyma, R.P. Dispersal versus climate: Expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the Upper Great Lakes Region. Vegetation 67, (1986). 93103.
Davis, M. B., Sugita, S., Calcote, R. R., Ferrari, J. F., and Frelich, L. E. (1994). Historical development of alternate communities in a hemlock-hardwood forest in Northern Michigan.. In Large Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology Edwards, P. J., May, R., and Webb, N. R., Eds., pp. 1939. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Davis, M., Douglas, C., Calcote, R., Cole, K.L., Winkler, M.G., and Flakne, R. Holocene climate in the western Great Lakes National Parks and Lakeshores: Implications for future climate change. Conservation Biology 14, (2000). 968983.
Denniston, R.F., Gonzalez, L.A., Asmerom, Y., Baker, R.G., Reagan, M.K., Bettis, E.A. III. Evidence for increased cool season moisture during the middle Holocene. Geology 27, (1999). 815818.
Farrand, W.R. Postglacial uplift in North America. American Journal of Science 260, (1962). 181199.
Farrand, W.R., and Drexler, C.W. Late Wisconsinan and Holocene History of the Lake Superior Basin. Karrow, P.F., and Calkin, P.E. Quaternary Evolution of the Great Lakes. (1985). 1732.
Fraser, G.S., Larsen, C.E., and Hester, N.C. Climatically controlled high lake levels in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron basins. Anais Academia Brasileira Ciencias (Supplemento) 47, (1975). 5166.
Fraser, G.S., Larsen, C.E., and Hester, N.C. Climatic control of lake levels in the Lake Michigan and Lake Huron basins. Schneider, A.F., and Fraser, G.S. Late Quaternary History of the Lake Michigan Basin. (1990). 7589.
Futyma, R.P., and Miller, N.O. Stratigraphy and genesis of the Lake Sixteen peatland, northern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany 64, (1986). 30083019.
Godman, R.M., and Krefting, L.W. Factors important to yellow birch establishment in Upper Michigan. Ecology 41, (1960). 1828.
Grimm, E.C. CONISS: A Fortran 77 program for stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis by the method of incremental sum of squares. Computers and Geosciences 13, (1987). 1335.
Hansel, A.K., Mickelson, D.M., Schneider, A.F., and Larson, C.E. Late Wisconsinan and Holocene history of the Lake Michigan basin. Karrow, P.F., and Calkin, P.E. Quaternary Evolution of the Great Lakes. (1985). 3953.
Hough, J.L. Geology of the Great Lakes. (1958). Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Jackson, S. T. (1999). Techniques for analysing unconsolidated lake sediments.. In Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques Jones, T. P. and Rowe, N. P., Eds., pp. 274278. Geol. Soc, . London.
Johnston, J. W, Thompson, T. A, and Baedke, S. J. (2000). Preliminary report of Late Holocene lake-level variation in southern Lake Superior. Indiana Geological Survey, Open File Study 99–18, Bloomington, Indiana.
Larsen, C.E. Lake level, uplift, and outlet incision, the Nipissing and Algoma Great Lakes. Karrow, P.F., and Calkin, P.E. Quaternary Evolution of the Great Lakes. (1985). 6377.
Larsen, C. E. (1985b). ), A stratigraphic study of beach features on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan: New evidence of Holocene lake level fluctuations. Illinois State Geological Survey, Environmental Geology Notes 112.
Lewis, C.F.M. Late Quaternary history of lake levels in the Huron and Erie basins. Proceedings of the 12th Conference of Great Lakes Research. (1969). International Association of Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor. p. 250–270
Lewis, C.F.M. Recent uplift of Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 7, (1970). 665675.
Manny, B.A., Wetzel, R.G., and Bailey, R.E. Paleolimnological sedimentation of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, fossil pigments, pollen and diatoms in a hypereutrophic hardwater lake: A case history for eutrophication. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 25, (1978). 243267.
McAndrews, J.H. Postglacial history of prairie, savanna, and forest in northwestern Minnesota. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 22, (1966). 172.
Miller, N.G., and Futyma, R.P. Paleohydrological implications of Holocene peatland development in northern Michigan. Quaternary Research 27, (1987). 297311.
Saarnisto, M. Stratigraphical studies on the shoreline displacement of Lake Superior. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 12, (1975). 300319.
Singer, D.K., Jackson, S.T., Madsen, B.J., and Wilcox, D.A. Differentiating climatic and successional influences on long-term development of a marsh. Ecology 77, (1996). 17651778.
Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. Extended 14C database and revised CALIB 3.0 14C age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35, (1993). 215230.
Thompson, T.A., and Baedke, S.J. Strand-plain evidence for late Holocene lake-level variations in Lake Michigan. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109, (1997). 666682.
Voss, E.G. Michigan Flora, Part I: Gymnosperms and Monocots. (1972). Cranbrook Institute, Bloomfield Hills.
Voss, E. G. (1985). Michigan Flora. Part II: Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae), Cranbrook Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI.
Voss, E. G. (1996). Michigan Flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae), Cranbrook Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI.
Webb, R.S., Webb, T. III Rates of sediment accumulation in pollen cores from small lakes and mires of eastern North America. Quaternary Research 30, (1988). 284297.
Webb, T. III A vegetational history from northern Wisconsin: Evidence from modern and fossil pollen. The American Midland Naturalist 92, (1974). 1234.
Webb, T. III Eastern North America. Huntley, B., Webb, T. III Vegetation History. (1988). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht/Norwell. 385414.
Webb, T. III., Cushing, E.J., Wright, H.E. Jr. Holocene changes in vegetation of the Midwest. Wright, H.E. Jr. Late Quaternary Environments of the United States. Vol. 2, The Holocene. (1983). Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 142165.
Winkler, M.G., Swain, A.M., and Kutzbach, J.E. Middle Holocene dry period in the northern midwestern United States: Lake-levels and pollen stratigraphy. Quaternary Research 25, (1986). 235250.
Woods, K.D., and Davis, M.B. Paleoecology of range limits: Beech in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Ecology 70, (1989). 681696.
Wright, H.E. Aspects of the early postglacial sucession in the Great Lakes region. Ecology 45, (1964). 439448.
Wright, H.E. Patterns of Holocene climatic change in the midwestern United States. Quaternary Research 38, (1992). 129134.
Wright, H.E., and Watts, W.A. Glacial and Vegetational History of Northeastern Minnesota. (1969).
Yu, Z., McAndrews, J.H., and Eicher, U. Middle Holocene dry climate caused by change in atmospheric circulation patterns: Evidence from lake levels and stable isotopes. Geology 25, (1997). 251254.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed