Skip to main content Accessibility help

Integrating cultural and biological perspectives on long-term human-walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) interactions across the North Atlantic

  • Xénia Keighley (a1) (a2), Morten Tange Olsen (a1) and Peter Jordan (a2)


The hunting of marine mammals as a source of subsistence, trade, and commercial revenue has formed an important part of human cultures across the North Atlantic. One important prey species has been the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), sought after for meat, skin, blubber, ivory, and bone. Unfortunately, biological studies of current walrus populations and studies across the humanities and social sciences into past use and hunting of walruses, have been poorly integrated. Disciplinary boundaries have left a gap in understanding the reciprocal effects of human-walrus interactions. Emerging interdisciplinary methods offer new opportunities to write the historical ecology of Atlantic walruses. The integration of methods such as ancient DNA, isotopes, past population modelling, zooarchaeological assemblages, and ethnographic interviews can now be used to answer previously intractable questions. For example, how has walrus hunting shaped and been influenced by changes in human settlement and trade, what have been the cumulative impacts on walrus populations, the extent of anthropogenic selective pressures or the effect of changing hunting regimes on particular populations of walruses? New, collaborative research approaches applied to the wealth of Arctic archaeological faunal remains already housed in museum collections offer a unique chance to explore the past dynamics of human-animal interactions.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author e-mail address:


Hide All
Ackerman, R.E., 1998. Early maritime traditions in the Bering, Chukchi, and East Siberian Seas. Arctic Anthropology 35, 247262.
Acquarone, M., Born, E.W., Speakman, J.R., 2006. Field metabolic rates of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) measured by the doubly labeled water method. Aquatic Mammals, 32, 363.
Alix, C., 2016. A Critical Resource. In: Friesen, M., Mason, O. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Prehistoric Arctic. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 109130.
Allentoft, M.E., Collins, M., Harker, D., Haile, J., Oskam, C.L., Hale, M.L., Campos, P.F., et al. , 2012. The half-life of DNA in bone: measuring decay kinetics in 158 dated fossils. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 279, 47244733.
Andersen, A.O., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Flora, J., 2018. Is sustainable resource utilisation a relevant concept in Avanersuaq? The walrus case. Ambio 47, 265280.
Andersen, L.W., Born, E.W., 2000. Indications of two genetically different subpopulations of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in west and northwest Greenland. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78, 19992009.
Andersen, L.W., Born, E.W., Doidge, D.W., Gjertz, I., Wiig, Ø., Waples, R.S., 2009. Genetic signals of historic and recent migration between sub-populations of Atlantic walrus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus west and east of Greenland. Endangered Species Research 9, 197211.
Andersen, L.W., Born, E.W., Gjertz, I., Wiig, O., Holm, L.E., Bendixen, C., 1998. Population structure and gene flow of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Atlantic Arctic based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite variation. Molecular Ecology 7, 13231336.
Andersen, L.W., Born, E.W., Stewart, R.E.A., Dietz, R., Doidge, D.W., Lanthier, C., 2014. A genetic comparison of West Greenland and Baffin Island (Canada) walruses: Management implications. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 3352.
Andersen, L.W., Jacobsen, M.W., Lydersen, C., Semenova, V., Boltunov, A., Born, E.W., Wiig, Ø., Kovacs, K.M., 2017. Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the Pechora Sea in the context of contemporary population structure of Northeast Atlantic walruses. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 122, 897915.
Arneborg, J., Lynnerup, N., Heinemeier, J., 2012. Human diet and subsistence patterns in Norse Greenland AD c.980—c.1450: archaeological interpretations. Journal of the North Atlantic Special Volume 3, 119133.
Balasse, M., Tresset, A., 2002. Early weaning of Neolithic domestic cattle (Bercy, France) revealed by intra-tooth variation in nitrogen isotope ratios. Journal of Archaeological Science 29, 853859.
Becker, M.S., Pollard, W.H., 2016. Sixty-year legacy of human impacts on a high Arctic ecosystem. The Journal of Applied Ecology 53, 876884.
Betts, M., 2016. Zooarchaeology and the reconstruction of ancient human-animal relationships in the Arctic. In: Friesen, M., Mason, O.K. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Prehistoric Arctic. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 81108.
Boecklen, W.J., Yarnes, C.T., Cook, B.A., James, A.C., 2011. On the use of stable isotopes in trophic ecology. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 42, 411440.
Boessenecker, R.W., Churchill, M., 2013. A reevaluation of the morphology, paleoecology, and phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic Walrus Pelagiarctos. PloS One 8, e54311.
Borge, T., Bachmann, L., Bjørnstad, G., Wiig, O., 2007. Genetic variation in Holocene bowhead whales from Svalbard. Molecular Ecology 16, 22232235.
Born, E., Andersen, L., Gjertz, I., Wiig, Ø., 2001. A review of the genetic relationships of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) east and west of Greenland. Polar Biology 24, 713718.
Born, E.W., 2001. Reproduction in female Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from north-west Greenland. Journal of Zoology 255, 165174.
Born, E.W., 2003. Reproduction in male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from the North Water (N Baffin Bay). Marine Mammal Science 19, 819831.
Born, E.W., Acquarone, M., 2007. An estimation of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) predation on bivalves in the Young Sound area (NE Greenland). Medd Grønland Biosci 58, 176191.
Born, E.W., Acquarone, M., Knutsen, L.Ø., Toudal, L., 2005. Homing behaviour in an Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus). Aquatic Mammals 31, 23.
Born, E.W., Gjertz, I., Reeves, R.R., 1995. Population assessment of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus L.). In: Brekke, A. (Ed.), Meddelelser. Norsk Polarinstiutt, Vol. 138. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Oslo, pp. 1102.
Born, E.W., Holm, L.K., Laidre, K.L., Iversen, M., 2017. Walruses and the Walrus Hunt in West and Northwest Greenland: An Interview Survey about the Catch and the Climate. Meddelelser om Grønland, Museum Tusculanum Press, Vol. 44. Copenhagen.
Born, E.W., Knutsen, L.Ø., 1997. Haul-out and diving activity of male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in NE Greenland. Journal of Zoology 243, 381396.
Born, E.W., Rysgaard, S., Ehlmé, G., Sejr, M., Acquarone, M., Levermann, N., 2003. Underwater observations of foraging free-living Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) and estimates of their food consumption. Polar Biology 26, 348357.
Born, E.W., Stefansson, E., Mikkelsen, B., Laidre, K.L., Andersen, L.W., Rigét, F.F., Villum Jensen, M., Bloch, D., 2014. A note on a walrus’ European odyssey. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 7592.
Bouchard, M.A., Harington, C.R., Guilbault, J.-P., 1993. First evidence of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus L.) in Late Pleistocene Champlain Sea sediments, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30, 17151719.
Budd, P., Montgomery, J., Barreiro, B., Thomas, R.G., 2000. Differential diagenesis of strontium in archaeological human dental tissues. Applied Geochemistry 15, 687694.
Burger, J., Hummel, S., Hermann, B., Henke, W., 1999. DNA preservation: a microsatellite-DNA study on ancient skeletal remains. Electrophoresis 20, 17221728.
Burn, D.M., Webber, M.A., Udevitz, M.S., 2006. Application of airborne thermal imagery to surveys of Pacific walrus. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34, 5158.
Cabrera, A.A., Palsbøll, P.J., 2017. Inferring past demographic changes from contemporary genetic data: a simulation-based evaluation of the ABC methods implemented in DIYABC. Molecular Ecology Resources 17, e94e110.
Caldwell, D.H., Hall, M.A. (Eds.), 2014. Walrus hunting and the ivory trade in the North Atlantic. In: Caldwell, D.H., Hall, M.A. The Lewis Chessmen: New Perspectives. National Museums Scotland and Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh, p. 336.
Campos, P.F., Willerslev, E., Sher, A., Orlando, L., Axelsson, E., Tikhonov, A., Aaris-Sørensen, K., et al. , 2010. Ancient DNA analyses exclude humans as the driving force behind late Pleistocene musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 56755680.
Cappellini, E., Jensen, L.J., Szklarczyk, D., Ginolhac, A., da Fonseca, R.A.R., Stafford, T.W., Holen, S.R., et al. 2012. Proteomic analysis of a Pleistocene mammoth femur reveals more than one hundred ancient bone proteins. Journal of Proteome Research 11, 917926.
Chapskii, K.K., 1940. Distribution of the walrus in the Laptev and East Siberian seas. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki 6, 8094.
Charapata, P., Horstmann, L., Jannasch, A., Misarti, N., 2018. A novel method to measure steroid hormone concentrations in walrus bone from archaeological, historical, and modern time periods using LC/MS/MS. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 32, 19992023.
Charapata, P.M., 2016. Back to the Future: Pacific Walrus Stress Response and Reproductive Status in a Changing Arctic. Master's thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
Christiansen, F., Dujon, A.M., Sprogis, K.R., Arnould, J.P.Y., Bejder, L., 2016. Noninvasive unmanned aerial vehicle provides estimates of the energetic cost of reproduction in humpback whales. Ecosphere 7, 114.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), 2017. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora, Appendices I, II and III (accessed June 02, 2017).
Cronin, M.A., Hills, S., Born, E.W., Patton, J.C., 1994. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Atlantic and Pacific walruses. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72, 10351043.
Darwent, C.M., 2004. The highs and lows of High Arctic mammals: temporal change and regional variability in Paleoeskimo subsistence. In: Mondini, M., Muñoz, S., Wickler, S., (Eds.) Colonisation, Migration, and Marginal Areas: A Zooarchaeological Approach. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp. 6273.
Degerbøl, M., 1929. Animal bones from the Norse ruins at Gardar, Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 76, 183192.
Degerbøl, M., 1934. Animal bones from the Norse Ruins at Brattahlið. Meddelelser om Grønland 88, 149155.
Degerbøl, M., 1936. Animal remains from the West Settlement in Greenland: researches into Norse culture in Greenland, with special reference to livestock. Meddelelser om Grønland 88, 154.
Degerbøl, M., 1941. The osseous material from Austmannadal and Tungmeralik. Meddelelser om Grønland 89, 345354.
Degerbøl, M., 1943. Animal bones from inland farms of the eastern settlement. Meddelelser om Grønland 90, 113119.
Desjardins, S.P.A., 2013. Evidence for intensive walrus hunting by Thule Inuit, northwest Foxe Basin, Nunavut, Canada. Anthropozoologica 48, 3751.
Desjardins, S.P.A., 2018. Neo-Inuit strategies for ensuring food security during the Little Ice Age climate change episode, Foxe Basin, Arctic Canada. Quaternary International.
Dickson, R.R., Osborn, T.J., Hurrell, J.W., Meincke, J., Blindheim, J., Adlandsvik, B., Vinje, T., Alekseev, G., Maslowski, W., 2000. The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Climate 13, 26712696.
Dietz, R., Born, E.W., Stewart, R.E.A., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Stern, H., Rigét, F., Toudal, L., Lanthier, C., Jensen, M.V., Teilmann, J., 2014. Movements of walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) between central west Greenland and southeast Baffin Island, 2005–2008. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 5374.
Dredge, L.A., 1992. The Geology of the Igloolik Island area, and Sea Level Changes. Science Institute of the Northwest Territories, Inuvik.
Driesschaert, E., Fichefet, T., Goosse, H., Huybrechts, P., Janssens, I., Mouchet, A., Munhoven, G., Brovkin, V., Weber, S.L., 2007. Modeling the influence of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the next millennia. Geophysical Research Letters 34, 1139.
Drucker, D.G., Vercoutere, C., Chiotti, L., Nespoulet, R., Crepin, L., Conard, N.J., Muenzel, S.C., et al. , 2015. Tracking possible decline of woolly mammoth during the Gravettian in Dordogne (France) and the Ach Valley (Germany) using multi-isotope tracking (C-13, C-14, N-15, S-34, O-18). Quaternary International 359, 304317.
Dyke, A.S., Hooper, J., Richard Harington, C., Savelle, J.M., 1999. The Late Wisconsinan and Holocene record of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) from North America: a review with new data from Arctic and Atlantic Canada. Arctic 52, 160181.
Enghoff, I.B., 2003. Hunting, fishing and animal husbandry at the farm beneath the sand, Western Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, 28, 1105.
Erlandson, J.M., Moss, M.L., 2001. Shellfish Feeders, carrion eaters, and the archaeology of aquatic adaptations. American Antiquity, 66, 413432.
Etnier, M.A., 2007. Defining and identifying sustainable harvests of resources: archaeological examples of pinniped harvests in the eastern North Pacific. Journal for Nature Conservation 15, 196207.
Fay, F.H., 1982. Ecology and Biology of the Pacific Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger. North American Fauna, No. 74. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks.
Fay, F.H., 1985. Odobenus rosmarus. Mammalian Species 238, 17.
Fay, F.H., Eberhardt, L.L., Kelly, B.P., Burns, J.J., Quakenbush, L.T., 1997. Status of the Pacific walrus population, 1950–1981. Marine Mammal Science 13, 537565.
Fay, G., Karlsdóttir, A., 2011. Social indicators for arctic tourism: observing trends and assessing data. Polar Geography 34, 6386.
Fischbach, A.S., Jay, C.V., Jackson, J.V., Andersen, L.W., Sage, G.K., Talbot, S.L., 2008. Molecular method for determining sex of walruses. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72, 18081812.
Fisher, K.I., Stewart, R.E.A., 1997. Summer foods of Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, in northern Foxe Basin, Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75, 11661175.
Fitzhugh, W., 2016. Archaeology of the Inuit of southern Labrador and the Quebec lower North Shore. In: Friesen, M., Mason, O.K. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Prehistoric Arctic. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 937960.
Foote, A.D., Liu, Y., Thomas, G.W.C., Vinař, T., Alföldi, J., Deng, J., Dugan, S., et al. , 2015. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals. Nature Genetics 47, 272275.
Freeman, M.M.R., 1974. Studies in maritime hunting II. An analysis of walrus hunting and utilisation: Southampton Island, NWT 1970. Folk Dansk Ethnografisk Tidsskrift 16, 147158.
Frei, K.M., Coutu, A.N., Smiarowski, K., Harrison, R., Madsen, C.K., Arneborg, J., Frei, R., et al. , 2015. Was it for walrus? Viking Age settlement and medieval walrus ivory trade in Iceland and Greenland. World Archaeology 47, 439466.
Friesen, T.M., Arnold, C.D., 2008. The timing of the Thule migration: New dates from the western Canadian Arctic. American Antiquity 73, 527538.
Garde, E., Jung-Madsen, S., Ditlevsen, S., Hansen, R.G., Zinglersen, K.B., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., 2018. Diving behavior of the Atlantic walrus in high Arctic Greenland and Canada. Journal of Experimental marine Biology and Ecology 500, 8999.
Garlich-Miller, J.L., Stewart, R.E.A., 1998. Growth and sexual dimorphism of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Foxe Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada. Marine Mammal Science 14, 803818.
Garlich-Miller, J.L., Stewart, R.E.A., 1999. Female reproductive patterns and fetal growth of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Foxe Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada. Marine Mammal Science 15, 179191.
Garlich-Miller, J.L., Stewart, R.E.A., Stewart, B.E., Hiltz, E.A., 1993. Comparison of mandibular with cemental growth-layer counts for ageing Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 71, 163167.
Gjertz, I., Wiig, Ø., Øristland, N.A., 1998. Backcalculation of original population size for walruses Odobenus rosmarus in Franz Josef Land. Wildlife Biology 4, 223230.
Goetz, K.T., Montgomery, R.A., Ver Hoef, J.M., Hobbs, R.C., Johnson, D.S., 2012. Identifying essential summer habitat of the endangered beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Endangered Species Research 16, 135147.
Gotfredsen, A.B., Appelt, M., Hastrup, K.B. 2018. Walrus history around the North Water: human animal relations in a long-term perspective. Ambio 47, 183212
Gotfredsen, A.B., Møbjerg, T., 2004. Nipisat – a Saqqaq culture site in Sisimiut, central West Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 331, 243.
Graf, K.E., Buvit, I., 2017. Human dispersal from Siberia to Beringia: assessing a Beringian standstill in light of the archaeological evidence. Current Anthropology 58, S583S603.
Grayson, D.K., Meltzer, D.J., 2002. Clovis hunting and large mammal extinction: a critical review of the evidence. Journal of World Prehistory 16, 313359.
Gregr, E.J., 2011. Insights into North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica habitat from historic whaling records. Endangered Species Research 15, 223239.
Gulløv, H.C., 2008. The nature of contact between native Greenlanders and Norse. Journal of the North Atlantic 1, 1624.
Gulløv, H.C., 2016. Inuit-European interactions in Greenland. In: Friesen, M., M., Mason, O.K. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Prehistoric Arctic. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 897914.
Gulløv, H.C., Appelt, M., 1999. Late Dorset in High Arctic Greenland: Final Report on the Gateway to Greenland Project. Danish National Museum, Copenhagen.
Hacquebord, L., 2001. Three centuries of whaling and walrus hunting in Svalbard and its impact on the Arctic ecosystem. Environment and History 7, 169185.
Hambrecht, G., 2015. The first European colonization of the North Atlantic. In: Leone, M.P., Knauf, J.E. (Eds.) Historical Archaeologies of Capitalism. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 203225.
Hammill, M.O., Blanchfield, P., Higdon, J., Stewart, D.B., Ferguson, S.H., 2016a. Estimating Abundance and Total Allowable Removals for Walrus in Foxe Basin. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS), Ottawa.
Hammill, M.O., Mosnier, A., Gosselin, J.F., Higdon, J.W., Stewart, D.B., Doniol-Valcroze, ., Ferguson, S.H., Dunn, J.B., 2016b. Estimating abundance and total allowable removals for walrus in the Hudson Bay-Davis Strait and south and east Hudson Bay stocks during September 2014. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2016/036. Fishers and Oceans Canada, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Ottawa.
Hansen, A.J., Mitchell, D.L., Wiuf, C., Paniker, L., Brand, T.B., Binladen, J., Gilichinsky, D.A., Rønn, R., Willerslev, E., 2006. Crosslinks rather than strand breaks determine access to ancient DNA sequences from frozen sediments. Genetics 173, 11751179.
Harington, C.R., 2008. The Evolution of Arctic marine mammals. Ecological Applications 18, S23S40.
Hastrup, K., 2009. The nomadic landscape: people in a changing Arctic environment. Geografisk Tidsskrift 109, 181189.
Hebsgaard, M.B., Gilbert, M.T.P., Arneborg, J., Heyn, P., Allentoft, M.E., Bunce, M., Munch, K., Schweger, C., Willerslev, E., 2009. “The Farm Beneath the Sand”--an archaeological case study on ancient “dirt” DNA. Antiquity 83, 430444.
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Burt, L.M., Hansen, R.G., Nielsen, N.H., Rasmussen, M., Fossette, S., Stern, H., 2013. The significance of the north water polynya to arctic top predators. Ambio 42, 596610.
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Flora, J., Andersen, A.O., Stewart, R.E.A., Nielsen, N.H., Hansen, R.G., 2017. Movements of walruses in Smith Sound: a Canada-Greenland shared stock. Arctic 70, 308318.
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K., Fossette, S., Rasmussen, M.H., Nielsen, N.H., Hansen, R.G., 2014. Abundance of walruses in Eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 159171.
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Sinding, M.-H.S., Nielsen, N.H., Rosing-Asvid, A., Hansen, R.G., 2016. Large numbers of marine mammals winter in the North Water polynya. Polar Biology 39, 16051614.
Hill, E., 2011. The historical ecology of walrus exploitation in the North Pacific. In: T. J. Braje, T.J., Rick, T.C. (Eds.) Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology in the Northeast Pacific. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 4164.
Illiger, K., 1815. Ueberblick der Säugethiere nach ihrer Vertheilung über die Welttheile. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1804–1811, 39159.
Inkscape's Contributors, 2011. Inkscape professional vector graphics editor. The Inkscape Project (accessed January 13, 2017).
Katzenberg, A.M., Harrison, R.G., 1997. What's in a bone? Recent advances in archaeological bone chemistry. Journal of Archaeological Research 5, 265293.
Keenlyside, D.L., 1985. Late Palaeo-Indian evidence from the southern Gulf of St Lawrence. Archaeology of Eastern North America 13, 7992.
Keller, C., 2010. Furs, fish, and ivory: medieval Norsemen at the Arctic fringe. Journal of the North Atlantic 3, 123.
Knutsen, L.Ø., Born, E.W., 1994. Body growth in Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Greenland. Journal of Zoology 234, 371385.
Kovacs, K.M., 2016. Odobenus rosmarus ssp. Rosmarus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species e.T15108A66992323.
Kovacs, K.M., Aars, J., Lydersen, C., 2014. Walruses recovering after 60+ years of protection in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Research 33, 26034.
Kovacs, K.M., Lydersen, C., 2008. Climate change impacts on seals and whales in the North Atlantic Arctic and adjacent shelf seas. Science Progress 91, 117150.
Krupnik, I., Ray, G.C., 2007. Pacific walruses, indigenous hunters, and climate change: Bridging scientific and indigenous knowledge. Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography 54, 29462957.
Krupnik, I.I., 2000. Humans in the Bering Strait region: Responses to Environmental Change and Implications for the Future. Marine Mammal Commission Workshop, Bethesda.
Kruse, F., 2017. Catching up: the state and potential of historical catch data from Svalbard in the European Arctic. The Polar Record 53, 520533.
Laidre, K.L., Stern, H., Kovacs, K.M., Lowry, L., Moore, S.E., Regehr, E.V., Ferguson, S.H., et al. , 2015. Arctic marine mammal population status, sea ice habitat loss, and conservation recommendations for the 21st century. Conservation Biology 29, 724737.
LeMoine, G.M., Darwent, C.M., 1998. The walrus and the carpenter: late Dorset ivory working in the high Arctic. Journal of Archaeological Science 25, 7383.
Lindqvist, C., Bachmann, L., Andersen, L.W., Born, E.W., Arnason, U., Kovacs, K.M., Lydersen, C., Abramov, A.V., Wiig, Ø., 2009. The Laptev Sea walrus Odobenus rosmarus laptevi: an enigma revisited. Zoologica Scripta 38, 113127.
Lindqvist, C., Roy, T., Lydersen, C., Kovacs, K.M., Aars, J., Wiig, Ø., Bachmann, L., 2016. Genetic diversity of historical Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Bjørnøya and Håøya (Tusenøyane), Svalbard, Norway. BMC Research Notes 9, 112.
Linnaeus, C., 1758. Systema Naturæ. 10th ed. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.
Linnebjerg, J.F., Hobson, K.A., Fort, J., Nielsen, T.G., Møller, P., Wieland, K., Born, E.W., Rigét, F.F., Mosbech, A., 2016. Deciphering the structure of the West Greenland marine food web using stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N). Marine Biology 163, 230.
Lowther, A.D., Kovacs, K.M., Griffiths, D., Lydersen, C., 2015. Identification of motivational state in adult male Atlantic walruses inferred from changes in movement and diving behavior. Marine Mammal Science 31, 12911313.
Lydersen, C., Aars, J., Kovacs, K.M., 2008. Estimating the number of walruses in Svalbard from aerial surveys and behavioural data from satellite telemetry. Arctic 61, 119128.
Lydersen, C., Kovacs, K.M., 2014. Walrus Odobenus rosmarus research in Svalbard, Norway, 2000-2010. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 175190.
Lydolph, M.C., Jacobsen, J., Arctander, P., Gilbert, M.T.P., Gilichinsky, D.A., Hansen, A.J., Willerslev, E., Lange, L., 2005. Beringian paleoecology inferred from permafrost-preserved fungal DNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 10121017.
MacCracken, J.G., Beatty, W.S., Garlich-Miller, J.L., Kissling, M.L., Snyder, J.A., 2017. Final Species Status Assessment for the Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Marine Mammals Management, Anchorage.
Mangel, M., 2016. Whales, science, and scientific whaling in the International Court of Justice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113, 1452314527.
Mansfield, A.W., 1958. The Biology of the Atlantic walrus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus (Linnaeus) in the eastern Canadian Arctic. PhD dissertation, McGill University, Montreal.
Mansfield, A.W., St Aubin, D.J., 1991. Distribution and abundance of the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, in the Southampton Island-Coats Island Region of northern Hudson Bay. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105, 95100.
Markova, A.K., Puzachenko, A.Y., van Kolfschoten, T., Kosintsev, P.A., Kuznetsova, T.V., Tikhonov, A.N., Bachura, O.P., Ponomarev, D.V., van der Plicht, J., Kuitems, M., 2015. Changes in the Eurasian distribution of the musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) and the extinct bison (Bison priscus) during the last 50 ka BP. Quaternary International 378, 99110.
Maxwell, M.S., 1985. Prehistory of the Eastern Arctic. Academic Press, Orlando.
McGhee, R., 1977. Ivory for the Sea Woman: the symbolic attributes of a prehistoric technology. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 1, 141149.
McGhee, R., 2001. Arctic Voyages of Martin Frobisher: An Elizabethan Adventure. McGill-Queen's Press, Montreal.
McGovern, T., 1985. The arctic frontier of Norse Greenland. In: Green, S.W. (Ed.) The Archaeology of Frontiers and Boundaries. Academic Press Inc., New York, pp. 275323.
McGovern, T.H., 1983. Contributions to the paleoeconomy of Norse Greenland. Acta Archaeologica 54, 73122.
McLaren, I.A., 1993. Growth in pinnipeds. Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 68, 179.
McLeod, B.A., Brown, M.W., Moore, M.J., Stevens, W., Barkham, S.H., Barkham, M., White, B.N., 2008. Bowhead whales, and not right whales, were the primary target of 16th-to 17th-Century Basque whalers in the western North Atlantic. Arctic 61, 6175.
McLeod, B.A., Frasier, T.R., Lucas, Z., 2014. Assessment of the extirpated Maritimes walrus using morphological and ancient DNA analysis. PloS one 9, e99569.
Metcalfe, J.Z., 2017. Proboscidean isotopic compositions provide insight into ancient humans and their environments. Quaternary International 443, 147159.
Møbjerg, T., 1999. New adaptive strategies in the Saqqaq culture of Greenland, c. 1600–1400 BC. World Archaeology 30, 452465.
Monchot, H., Houmard, C., Dionne, M.-M., Desrosiers, P.M., Gendron, D., 2013. The modus operandi of walrus exploitation during the Palaeoeskimo period at the Tayara site, Arctic Canada. Anthropozoologica 48, 1536.
Monchot, H., Thompson, A., Patenaude, B., Houmard, C., 2016. The Role of Birds in the Subsistence Practices of the Dorset Peoples of Nunavik. Arctic Anthropology 53, 6983.
Muraco, H.S., Coombs, L.D., Procter, D.G., Turek, P.J., Muraco, M.J., 2012. Use of human chorionic gonadotropin in a male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) to induce rut and achieve a pregnancy in a nulliparous female. Journal of Andrology 33, 789797.
Murray, M.S., 1999. Local heroes. The long-term effects of short-term prosperity - an example from the Canadian Arctic. World Archaeology 30, 466483.
Murray, M.S., 2008. Zooarchaeology and Arctic marine mammal biogeography, conservation, and management. Ecological Applications 18, 4155.
Nelson, D.E., Heinemeier, J., Lynnerup, N., Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E., Arneborg, J., 2012. An isotopic analysis of the diet of the Greenland Norse. Journal of the North Atlantic 3, 93118.
Nelson, F., Lindsey, P., Balme, G., 2013. Trophy hunting and lion conservation: a question of governance? Oryx: The Journal of the Fauna Preservation Society 47, 501509.
Newsome, S.D., Clement, M.T., Koch, P.L., 2010. Using stable isotope biogeochemistry to study marine mammal ecology. Marine Mammal Science 26, 509572.
Nicholson, G.J., Tomiuk, J., Czarnetzki, A., Bachmann, L., Pusch, C.M., 2002. Detection of bone glue treatment as a major source of contamination in ancient DNA analyses. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 118, 117120.
Norman, L., Friesen, T.M., 2010. Thule fishing revisited: the economic importance of fish at the Pembroke and Bell Sites, Victoria Island, Nunavut. Geografisk Tidsskrift 110, 261278.
North Atlantic Mammal Commission (NAMMCO), 2004. Report of the NAMMCO Workshop on Hunting Methods for Seals and Walrus. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø.
North Atlantic Mammal Commission (NAMMCO), 2005. Annual Report. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø.
North Atlantic Mammal Commission (NAMMCO), 2013. Scientific Committee working group on walrus stock status of walrus in Greenland. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø.
North Atlantic Mammal Commission (NAMMCO), 2015. Annual Report. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø.
North Atlantic Mammal Commission (NAMMCO), 2018. Report of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee Working Group on Walrus, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Greenland Representation, Tromsø.
Nyholm, E.S., 1975. Observations on the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus L.) in Spitsbergen in 1971–1972. In Annales Zoologici Fennici 12, 193196.
Oliver, J.S., Slattery, P.N., O'Connor, E.F., Lowry, L.F., 1983. Walrus Odobenus rosmarus, feeding in the Bering Sea: a benthic perspective. Fishery Bulletin 81, 501512.
O'Rourke, D.H., Hayes, M.G., Carlyle, S.W., 2000. Ancient DNA studies in physical anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology 29, 217242.
Orlando, L., Gilbert, M.T.P., Willerslev, E., 2015. ReonstructingReconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes. Nature Reviews Genetics 16, 395408.
Oskam, C.L., Jacomb, C., Allentoft, M.E., Walter, R., Paul Scofield, R., Haile, J., Holdaway, R.N., Bunce, M., 2011. Molecular and morphological analyses of avian eggshell excavated from a late thirteenth century earth oven. Journal of Archaeological Science 38, 25892595.
Outridge, P.M., Davis, W.J., Stewart, R.E.A., Born, E.W., 2003. Investigation of the stock structure of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Canada and Greenland using dental Pb isotopes derived from local geochemical environments. Arctic 56, 8290.
Outridge, P.M., Stewart, R.E.A., 1999. Stock discrimination of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Canadian Arctic using lead isotope and element signatures in teeth. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56, 105112.
Panigada, S., Lauriano, G., Burt, L., Pierantonio, N., Donovan, G., 2011. Monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through aerial surveys. PLoS ONE 6, e22878.
Park, R.W., 2008. Contact between the Norse Vikings and the Dorset culture in Arctic Canada. Antiquity 82, 189198.
Pauly, D., 1995. Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10, 430.
Peary, R.E., 2012. Northward Over the Great Ice: A Narrative of Life and Work Along the Shores and Upon the Interior Ice-Cap of Northern Greenland in the Years 1886 and 1891-1897 Etc, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Petersens, Æ., 1993. Rostungar við Ísland að fornu og nýju. In: Hersteinsson, P. and Sigbjarnarson, G., (Ed.), Villt íslensk spendýr. Hið íslenska náttúrufræðifélag and Landvernd, Reykjavík, pp. 214216.
Pierce, E., 2009. Walrus hunting and the ivory trade in early Iceland. Archaeologia Islandica 7, 5563.
Pruvost, M., Schwarz, R., Correia, V.B., Champlot, S., Braguier, S., Morel, N., Fernandez-Jalvo, Y., Grange, T., Geigl, E.-M., 2007. Freshly excavated fossil bones are best for amplification of ancient DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 739744.
QGIS Development Team, 2018. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project (accessed February 27, 2017).
Raghavan, M., DeGiorgio, M., Albrechtsen, A., Moltke, I., Skoglund, P., Korneliussen, T.S., Grønnow, B., et al. , 2014. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic. Science 345, 1255832.,
Rasmussen, K., 1927. Report of the fifth Thule Expedition 1921–24: the Danish expedition to Arctic North America in charge of Knud Rasmussen. Gyldendal, Copenhagen.
Ray, G.C., Hufford, G.L., Overland, J.E., Krupnik, I., McCormick-Ray, J., Frey, K., Labunski, E., 2016. Decadal Bering Sea seascape change: consequences for Pacific walruses and indigenous hunters. Ecological Applications 26, 2441.
Renouf, M.A.P., 1986. Excavations at a Younger Stone Age settlement in Varangerfjord, Norway. The Polar Record 23, 273288.
Rigét, F., Dietz, R., Born, E.W., Sonne, C., Hobson, K.A., 2007. Temporal trends of mercury in marine biota of west and northwest Greenland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54, 7280.
Rijkelijkhuizen, M., 2009. Whales, walruses, and elephants: artisans in ivory, baleen, and other skeletal materials in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Amsterdam. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 13, 409.
Roman, J., Dunphy-Daly, M.M., Johnston, D.W., Read, A.J., 2015. Lifting baselines to address the consequences of conservation success. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30, 299302.
Ryan, K., 2016. The “Dorset Problem” Revisited. In: Friesen, M., M., Mason, O.K. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of the Prehistoric Arctic. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 761782.
Savelle, J.M., Dyke, A.S., Whitridge, P.J., Poupart, M., 2012. Paleoeskimo demography on western Victoria Island, Arctic Canada: implications for social organization and longhouse development. Arctic 65, 167181.
Seersholm, F.V., Pedersen, M.W., Søe, M.J., Shokry, H., Mak, S.S.T., Ruter, A., Raghavan, M., et al. , 2016. DNA evidence of bowhead whale exploitation by Greenlandic Paleo-Inuit 4,000 years ago. Nature Communications 7, 13389.
Shafer, A.B.A., Davis, C.S., Coltman, D.W., Stewart, R.E.A., 2014. Microsatellite assessment of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) stocks in Canada. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 1531.
Shafer, A.B.A., Gattepaille, L.M., Stewart, R.E.A., Wolf, J.B.W., 2015. Demographic inferences using short-read genomic data in an approximate Bayesian computation framework: in silico evaluation of power, biases and proof of concept in Atlantic walrus. Molecular Ecology 24, 328345.
Sjare, B., Stirling, I., 1996. The breeding behavior of Atlantic walruses, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, in the Canadian High Arctic. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 897911.
Stahl, P.W., 2014. Historical ecology and environmental archaeology. In: Smith, C. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer New York, New York, pp. 33963403.
Star, B., Barrett, J.H., Gondek, A.T., Boessenkool, S., 2018. Ancient DNA reveals the chronology of walrus ivory trade from Norse Greenland. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 285.
Stewart, D.B., Higdon, J.W., Reeves, R.R., Stewart, R.E.A., 2014d. A catch history for Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Canadian Arctic. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 219313.
Stewart, R.E., Kovacs, K.M., Acquarone, M., 2014a. Introduction: walrus of the North Atlantic. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 712.
Stewart, R.E.A., 2002. Review of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Canada. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2002/091. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg., pp.120.
Stewart, R.E.A., 2008. Redefining walrus stocks in Canada. Arctic 61, 292308.
Stewart, R.E.A., Born, E.W., Dietz, R., Ryan, A.K., 2014b. Estimates of minimum population size for walrus near southeast Baffin Island, Nunavut. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 141157.
Stewart, R.E.A., Born, E.W., Dunn, J.B., Koski, W.R., Ryan, A.K., 2014c. Use of multiple methods to estimate Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) Abundance in the Penny Strait-Lancaster Sound and West Jones Sound Stocks, Canada. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 95122.
Stewart, R.E.A., Outridge, P.M., Stern, R.A., 2003. Walrus life-history movements reconstructed from lead isotopes in annual layers of teeth. Marine Mammal Science, 19, 806818.
Sutherland, P.D., 2000. Strands of culture contact: Dorset-Norse interactions in the Canadian eastern Arctic. In: Appelt, M., Berglund, J. (Eds.) Identities and Cultural Contacts in the Arctic. Proceedings from a Conference at the Danish National Museum and Danish Polar Center. Copenhagen, pp. 159169.
Tryland, M., Lydersen, C., Kovacs, K.M., Thoresen, S.I., 2009. Serum chemistry reference values in free-ranging North Atlantic male walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from the Svalbard archipelago. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 38, 501506.
Udevitz, M.S., Burn, D.M., Webber, M.A., 2008. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography. Marine Mammal Science 24, 5770.
Vebæk, C.L., 1993. Narsaq - a Norse landnáma farm. Meddelelser om Grønland Man and Society, 18, 185.
Vibe, C., 1950. The marine mammals and the marine fauna in the Thule District (Northwest Greenland) with observations on the ice conditions in 1939–41. Meddr Grønland 150, 1115.
Visbeck, M.H., Hurrell, J.W., Polvani, L., Cullen, H.M., 2001. The North Atlantic Oscillation: past, present, and future. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 1287612877.
Weslawski, J.M., Hacquebord, L., Stempniewicz, L., Malinga, M., 2000. Greenland whales and walruses in the Svalbard food web before and after exploitation. Oceanologia 42, 3756.
Wheeler, B., Gilbert, M., Rowe, S., 2012. Definition of critical summer and fall habitat for bowhead whales in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Endangered Species Research 17, 116.
Wiig, Ø., Berg, V., Gjertz, I., Seagars, D.J., Skaare, J.U., 2000. Use of skin biopsies for assessing levels of organochlorines in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). Polar Biology 23, 272278.
Wiig, Ø., Born, E.W., Gjertz, I., Lydersen, C., Stewart, R.E.A., 2007. Historical sex-specific distribution of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Svalbard assessed by mandible measurements. Polar Biology 31, 6975.
Wiig, Ø., Born, E.W., Stewart, R.E.A., 2014. Management of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the arctic Atlantic. In: Stewart, R.E.A., Kovacs, K., Acquarone, M. (Eds.), Walrus of the North Atlantic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Vol. 9. North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Trømso, pp. 315341.
Wiig, Ø., Gjertz, I., 1996. Body size of male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Svalbard. Journal of Zoology 240, 495499.
Wiig, Ø., Gjertz, I., Griffiths, D., Lydersen, C., 1993. Diving patterns of an Atlantic walrus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus near Svalbard. Polar biology 13, 7172.
Wiig, Ø., Renzoni, A., Gjertz, I., 1999. Levels of cadmium and mercury in the hair of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Svalbard, Norway. Polar biology 21, 343346.
Willerslev, E., Hansen, A.J., Binladen, J., Brand, T.B., Gilbert, M.T.P., Shapiro, B., Bunce, M., Wiuf, C., Gilichinsky, D.A., Cooper, A., 2003. Diverse plant and animal genetic records from Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. Science 300, 791795.
Witting, L., Born, E.W., 2005. An assessment of Greenland walrus populations. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62, 266284.
Witting, L., Born, E.W., 2014. Population dynamics of walruses in Greenland. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 9, 191218.
Wolkers, H., van Bavel, B., Ericson, I., Skoglund, E., Kovacs, K.M., Lydersen, C., 2006. Congener-specific accumulation and patterns of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in adult male walruses from Svalbard, Norway: indications for individual-specific prey selection. The Science of the Total Environment 370, 7079.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Integrating cultural and biological perspectives on long-term human-walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) interactions across the North Atlantic

  • Xénia Keighley (a1) (a2), Morten Tange Olsen (a1) and Peter Jordan (a2)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.