Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Asian summer monsoon influence on chemical weathering and sediment provenance determined by clay mineral analysis from the Indus Submarine Canyon

  • Yuting Li (a1), Peter D. Clift (a2) (a3), Richard W. Murray (a4) (a5), Elise Exnicios (a2), Thomas Ireland (a4) and Philipp Böning (a6)...

Abstract

Clay minerals from the Indus Canyon and eastern clinoform since ~12 ka are uniformly rich in smectite and illite, similar to those from the Holocene Indus flood plains. A systematic enrichment of smectite in the proximal delta compared to the canyon and eastern clinoform argues for preferential capture of smectite close to the river mouth since ~12 ka. There is a rapid shift to a more smectite-rich assemblage in the canyon and eastern clinoform after ~5 ka. This change is probably caused by a change in sediment source, with less direct flux from the Himalaya and more erosion of older, weathered, smectite-rich sediment from the Indus River flood plains, driven by incision of the Indus and its tributaries into the floodplain as summer monsoon rains weakened. This influx of smectite is consistent with lower kaolinite/smectite values since ~5 ka. The onset of large-scale agricultural activities since ~5 ka, especially starting with the Harappan Civilization, may also have enhanced incision and erosion of floodplain sediments over the same time period. This study reports for the first time how monsoon strength variations since ~12 ka affected the clay mineral assemblages and sediment provenance in a major submarine canyon.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author e-mail address: yli114@purdue.edu (Yuting Li).

References

Hide All
Alizai, A., Hillier, S., Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., 2012. Clay mineral variations in Holocene terrestrial sediments from the Indus Basin: a response to SW Asian Monsoon variability. Quaternary Research 77, 368381.
Balsam, W.L., Damuth, J.E., 2000. Further investigations of shipboard vs. shore-based spectral data: implications for interpreting Leg 164 sediment composition. In: Paull, C.K., Matsumoto, R., Wallace, P.J., Dillon, W.P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, pp. 313324.
Balsam, W.L., Damuth, J.E., Deaton, B.C., 1999. Evaluating optical lightness as a proxy for carbonate content in marine cores. Marine Geology 161, 141153.
Balsam, W.L., Deaton, B.C., 1991. Sediment dispersal in the Atlantic ocean: evaluation by visible light spectra. Reviews of Aquatic Science 4, 411447.
Biscaye, P.E., 1965. Mineralogy and sedimentation of recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans. Geological Society of America Bulletin 76, 803832.
Blöthe, J.H., Munack, H., Korup, O., Fülling, A., Garzanti, E., Resentini, A., Kubik, P.W., 2014. Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin. Quaternary Science Reviews 94, 102119.
Böning, P., Schnetger, B., Beck, M., Brumsack, H.-J., 2018. Thallium dynamics in the Southern North Sea. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 227, 143155.
Bookhagen, B., Thiede, R.C., Strecker, M.R., 2005. Late Quaternary intensified monsoon phases control landscape evolution in the northwest Himalaya. Geology 33, 149152.
Camoin, G.F., Montaggioni, L.F., Braithwaite, C.J.R., 2004. Late glacial to post glacial sea levels in the western Indian Ocean. Marine Geology 206, 119146.
Castelltort, S., Van Den Driessche, J., 2003. How plausible are high-frequency sediment supply-driven cycles in the stratigraphic record? Sedimentary Geology 157, 313.
Chamley, H., 1989. Clay Sedimentology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., 2014. Sediment fluxes and buffering in the post-glacial Indus Basin. Basin Research 25, 118.
Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., Blusztajn, J., Campbell, I.H., Allen, C., Pringle, M., Tabrez, A.R., et al. 2008. Holocene erosion of the Lesser Himalaya triggered by intensified summer monsoon. Geology 36, 7982.
Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., Henstock, T., Tabrez, A.R., 2014. Sediment Storage and Reworking on the Shelf and in the Canyon of the Indus River-Fan System since the Last Glacial Maximum. Basin Research 26, 183202.
Clift, P.D., Shimizu, N., Layne, G.D., Blusztajn, J.S., Gaedicke, C., Schüter, H.U., Clark, M.K., et al. , 2001. Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the western Himalaya and Karakoram. Geological Society of America Bulletin 113, 10391051.
Colin, C., Turpin, L., Bertaux, J., Desprairies, A., Kissel, C., 1999. Erosional history of the Himalayan and Burman ranges during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 171(4): 647660.
Colin, C., Siani, G., Sicre, M.-A., Liu, Z., 2010. Impact of the East Asian monsoon rainfall changes on the erosion of the Mekong River basin over the past 25,000 yr. Marine Geology 271, 8492.
Deaton, B.C., Balsam, W.L., 1991. Visible Spectroscopy - a rapid method for determining hematite and goethite concentration in geological materials. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 61, 628632.
Dixit, Y., Hodell, D.A., Petrie, C.A., 2014. Abrupt weakening of the summer monsoon in northwest India ~4100 yr ago. Geology, 42 (4), 339342.
Dunlea, A.G., Murray, R.W., Sauvage, J., Spivack, A.J., Harris, R.N., D'Hondt, S., 2015. Dust, volcanic ash, and the evolution of the South Pacific Gyre through the Cenozoic. Paleoceanography 30, 10781099.
East, A.E., Clift, P.D., Carter, A., Alizai, A., VanLaningham, S., 2015. Fluvial–Eolian Interactions In sediment routing and sedimentary signal buffering: an example from the Indus Basin and Thar Desert. Journal of Sedimentary Research 85, 715728.
Enzel, Y., Ely, L.L., Mishra, S., Ramesh, R., Amit, R., Lazar, B., Rajaguru, S.N. et al. , 1999. High-resolution Holocene environmental changes in the Thar Desert, northwestern India. Science 284, 125128.
Fagel, N., 2007. Marine clay minerals, deep circulation and climate. In: Hillaire-Marcel, C., Vernal, A.d. (Eds.), Paleoceanography of the Late Cenozoic, Volume 1: Methods. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 139184.
Fedo, C.M., Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., 1995. Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Geology 23, 921924.
Fildani, A., McKay, M.P., Stockli, D., Clark, J., Dykstra, M.L., Stockli, L., Hessler, A.M., 2016. The ancestral Mississippi drainage archived in the late Wisconsin Mississippi deep-sea fan. Geology, 44 (6), 479482.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A., Matter, A., 2003. Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science 300, 17371739.
Giosan, L., Clift, P.D., Macklin, M.G., Fuller, D.Q., Constantinescu, S., Durcan, J.A., Stevens, T., et al. , 2012. Fluvial Landscapes of the Harappan Civilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, 16881694.
Giosan, L., et al. , 2006. Recent morphodynamics of the Indus delta shore and shelf. Continental Shelf Research 26, 16681684.
Giosan, L., Flood, R.D., Aller, R.C., 2002. Paleoceanographic significance of sediment color on western North Atlantic drifts: I. Origin of color. Marine Geology 189, 2541.
Gupta, A.K., Anderson, D.M., Overpeck, J.T., 2003. Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 421, 354356.
Howell, A.L., Bentley, S.J., Xu, K., Ferrell, R.E., Muhammad, Z., Septama, E. 2014. Fine sediment mineralogy as a tracer of latest Quaternary sediment delivery to a dynamic continental margin: Pandora Trough, Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea. Marine Geology 357, 108122.
Hu, D., Clift, P.D., Böning, P., Hannigan, R., Hillier, S., Blusztajn, J., Wan, S., et al. , 2013. Holocene evolution in weathering and erosion patterns in the Pearl River delta. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 14 (7), 23492368.
Hu, D., Clift, P.D., Wan, S., Böning, P., Hannigan, R., Hillier, S., Blusztajn, J., 2016. Testing chemical weathering proxies in Miocene–Recent fluvial-derived sediments in the South China Sea. In: Clift, P.D., Harff, J., Wu, J., Qiu, Y. (Eds.), River-Dominated Shelf Sediments of East Asian Seas. Special Publication. 429(1) Geological Society, London.
Inam, A., Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., Tabrez, A.R., Tahir, M., Rabbani, M.M., Danish, M., 2007. The geographic, geological and oceanographic setting of the Indus River. In: Gupta, A. (Ed.), Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 333345.
Jarrard, R.D., Vanden Berg, M.D., 2006. Sediment mineralogy based on visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. In: Rothwell, R.G. (Ed.), New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis. Special Publication. Geological Society, London, pp. 129140.
Jerolmack, D.J., Paola, C., 2010. Shredding of environmental signals by sediment transport. Geophysical Research Letters 37 (19), L19401.
Jonell, T.N., Carter, A., Böning, P., Pahnke, K., Clift, P.D., 2017a. Climatic and glacial impact on erosion patterns and sediment provenance in the Himalayan rain shadow, Zanskar River, NW India. Geological Society of America Bulletin 129, 820836.
Jonell, T.N., Clift, P.D., Hoang, L.V., Hoang, T., Carter, A., Wittmann, H., Böning, P., et al. , 2017b. Controls on erosion patterns and sediment transport in a monsoonal, tectonically quiescent drainage, Song Gianh, central Vietnam. Basin Research 29, 659683.
Jonell, T.N., Owen, L.A., Carter, A., Schwenniger, J.-L., Clift, P.D., 2017c. Quantifying episodic erosion and transient storage on the western margin of the Tibetan Plateau, upper Indus River. Quaternary Research 89, 281306.
Kolla, V., Coumes, F., 1987. Morphology, internal structure, seismic stratigraphy, and sedimentation of Indus Fan. AAPG Bulletin 71, 650677.
Lamy, F., Hebbeln, D., Wefer, G., 1998. Late Quaternary precessional cycles of terrigenous sediment input off the Norte Chico, chile (27.5°S) and palaeoclimatic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 141, 233251.
Li, Y., Clift, P.D., Böning, P., Blusztajn, J., Murray, R.W., Ireland, T., Pahnke, K., et al. , 2018. Continuous Holocene input of river sediment to the Indus Submarine Canyon. Marine Geology 406, 159176.
Li, Y., Clift, P.D., O'Sullivan, P., 2019. Millennial and centennial variations in zircon u-pb ages in the quaternary Indus Submarine Canyon. Basin Research 31, 155170.
Limmer, D.R., Boening, P., Giosan, L., Ponton, C., Köhler, C.M., Cooper, M.J., Tabrez, A.R., et al. , 2012a. Geochemical record of holocene to recent sedimentation on the western Indus continental shelf, Arabian Sea. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13(Q01008), doi:10.1029/2011GC003845.
Limmer, D.R., Köhler, C.M., Hillier, S, Moreton, S.G., Tabrez, A.R., Clift, P.D., 2012b. Chemical weathering and provenance evolution of Holocene-Recent sediments from the Western Indus Shelf, Northern Arabian Sea inferred from physical and mineralogical properties. Marine Geology 326–328, 101115.
Liu, C., Clift, P.D., Murray, R.W., Blusztajn, J., Ireland, T., Wan, S., Ding, W., 2017. Geochemical evidence for initiation of the modern Mekong delta in the southwestern South China Sea after 8 Ma. Chemical Geology, 451: 3854.
Liu, Z., Colin, C., Huang, W., Le, K.P., Tong, S., Chen, Z., Trentesaux, A., 2007. Climatic and tectonic controls on weathering in south China and Indochina Peninsula: clay mineralogical and geochemical investigations from the Pearl, Red, and Mekong drainage basins. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 8, Q05005, doi:10.1029/2006GC001490.
Lupker, M., France-Lanord, C., Galy, V., Lave, J., Gaillardet, J., Gajured, A.P., Guilmette, C., et al. , 2012. Predominant floodplain over mountain weathering of Himalayan sediments (Ganga basin). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 84, 410432.
Madella, M., Fuller, D.Q., 2006. Palaeoecology and the Harappan civilisation of South Asia: a reconsideration. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 12831301.
McNichol, A.P., Gagnon, A.R., Osborne, E.A., Hutton, D.L., VonReden, K.F., Schneider, R.J., 1995. Improvements in procedural blanks at NOSAMS: reflections of improvements in sample preparation and accelerator operation. Radiocarbon 37, 683691.
Métivier, F., Gaudemer, Y., 1999. Stability of output fluxes of large rivers in South and East Asia during the last 2 million years: implications of floodplain processes. Basin Research 11, 293303.
Monaco, A., 1971. Contribution a`l'Etude Geologique et Sedimentologique du Plateau Continental du Roussillon (Golfe du Lion). Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, Montpellier.
Montgomery, D.R., 2007. Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Munack, H., Blothe, J.H., Fülop, R.H., Codilean, A.T., Fink, D., Korup, O., 2016. Recycling of Pleistocene valley fills dominates 135 ka of sediment flux, upper Indus River. Quaternary Science Reviews 149, 122134. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.07.030.
Nesbitt, H.W., Markovics, G., Price, R.C., 1980. Chemical processes affecting alkalis and alkaline earths during continental weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 44, 16591666.
Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., 1982. Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299, 715717.
Possehl, G., 1993. Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective. Oxford University Press, Delhi.
Reimer, P., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Ramsey, C.B., Buck, C.E., et al. , 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon, 55(4): 18691887.
Romans, B.W., Castelltort, S., Covault, J.A., Fildani, A., Walsh, J.P., 2016. Environmental signal propagation in sedimentary systems across timescales. Earth-Science Reviews 153, 729.
Schwertmann, U., 1971. Transformation of hematite to goethite in soils. Nature 232, 624625.
Schwertmann, U., 1988. Occurrence and formation of iron oxides in various pedoenvironments. In: Stucki, J.W. (Ed.), Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals. D. Reidel, Norwell, pp. 267308.
Singh, S.K., Sarin, M.M., France-Lanord, C., 2005. Chemical erosion in the eastern Himalaya; major ion composition of the Brahmaputra and d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, 35733588.
Sirocko, F., Lange, H., 1991. Clay mineral accumulation rates in the Arabian Sea during the Late Quaternary. Marine Geology 97: 105119.
Stuiver, M., Grootes, P.M., 2000. GISP2 oxygen isotope ratios. Quaternary Research 53, 277284.
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., 1993. Extended C-14 data-base and revised Calib 3.0 C-14 age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35, 215230.
Sweet, M.I., Blum, M.D., 2016. Connections between fluvial to shallow marine environments and submarine canyons: implications for sediment transfer to deep water. Journal of Sedimentary Research 86, 11471162.
Syvitski, J.P.M., V., C., Kettner, A.J., Green, P., 2005. Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science 308: 376380.
Thiry, M., 2000. Palaeoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in marine deposits: an outlook from the continental origin. Earth-Science Reviews 49, 201221.
Wan, S., Li, A., Clift, P.D., Stuut, J.-B.W., 2007. Development of the East Asian monsoon: Mineralogical and sedimentologic records in the northern South China Sea since 20 Ma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 254(3–4): 561582.
West, A.J., Galy, A., Bickle, M.J., 2005. Tectonic and climatic controls on silicate weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 235, 211228.
Whitehouse, U.G., Jeffrey, L.M., Debbrecht, J.D., 1960. Differential settling tendencies of clay minerals in saline waters. Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals: 1–79.
Wünnemann, B., et al. , 2010. Hydrological evolution during the last 15 kyr in the Tso Kar lake basin (Ladakh, India), derived from geomorphological, sedimentological and palynological records. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 11381155.
Xue, Z., et al. , 2014. Sedimentary processes on the Mekong subaqueous delta: clay mineral and geochemical analysis. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 79A, 520528.
Zhang, Y.G., Jia, J., Balsam, W.L., Liu, L., Chen, J., 2007. High resolution hematite and goethite records from ODP 1143, South China Sea: co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation and El Niño over the past 600,000 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 264, 136150.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Li et al. supplementary material
Li et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (26 KB)
26 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Li et al. supplementary material
Li et al. supplementary material 2

 PDF (3.9 MB)
3.9 MB

Asian summer monsoon influence on chemical weathering and sediment provenance determined by clay mineral analysis from the Indus Submarine Canyon

  • Yuting Li (a1), Peter D. Clift (a2) (a3), Richard W. Murray (a4) (a5), Elise Exnicios (a2), Thomas Ireland (a4) and Philipp Böning (a6)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed