Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

All Toba Tephra Occurrences across Peninsular India Belong to the 75,000 yr B.P. Eruption

  • John A. Westgate (a1), Philip A.R. Shane (a2), Nicholas J.G. Pearce (a3), William T. Perkins (a3), Ravi Korisettar (a4), Craig A. Chesner (a5), Martin A.J. Williams (a6) and Subhrangsu K. Acharyya (a7)...

Abstract

A controversy currently exists regarding the number of Toba eruptive events represented in the tephra occurrences across peninsular India. Some claim the presence of a single bed, the 75,000-yr-old Toba tephra; others argue that dating and archaeological evidence suggest the presence of earlier Toba tephra. Resolution of this issue was sought through detailed geochemical analyses of a comprehensive suite of samples, allowing comparison of the Indian samples to those from the Toba caldera in northern Sumatra, Malaysia, and importantly, the sedimentary core at ODP Site 758 in the Indian Ocean—a core that contains several of the earlier Toba tephra beds. In addition, two samples of Toba tephra from western India were dated by the fission-track method. The results unequivocally demonstrate that all the presently known Toba tephra occurrences in peninsular India belong to the 75,000 yr B.P. Toba eruption. Hence, this tephra bed can be used as an effective tool in the correlation and dating of late Quaternary sedimentary sequences across India and it can no longer be used in support of a middle Pleistocene age for associated Acheulian artifacts.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Acharyya, S.K., and Basu, P.K. (1993). Toba ash on the Indian subcontinent and its implications for correlation of late Pleistocene alluvium. Quaternary Research 40, 1019.
Acharyya, S.K., Basu, P.K. Quaternary Research 41, (1994). 400402.
Bogaard, P.van den. 40 39, Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results
Chesner, C.A. (1988). The Toba Tuff and Caldera Complex, Sumatra, Indonesia: Insights into Magma Bodies and Eruptions. Michigan Technological University, Houghton.
Chesner, C.A., Rose, W.I., Deino, A., Drake, R., and Westgate, J.A. (1991). Eruptive history of Earth's largest Quaternary caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clarified. Geology 19, 200203.
Dehn, J., Farrell, J.W., and Schmincke, H.-U. (1991). Neogene tephrochronology from Site 758 on northern Ninetyeast Ridge: Indonesian arc volcanism of the past 5 Ma. Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 121, 273295.
Farrell, J.W., and Janecek, T.R. (1991). Late Neogene paleoceanography and paleoclimatology of the northeast Indian Ocean (ODP Site 758). Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 121, 297355.
Hall, C.M., and Farrell, J.W. (1995). Laser40 39 . Earth and Planetary Science Letters 133, 327338.
Horn, P., Müller-Sohnius, D., Storzer, D., and Zöller, L. (1993). K-Ar, fission-track, and thermoluminescence ages of Quaternary volcanic tuffs and their bearing on Acheulian artifacts from Bori, Kukdi Valley, Pune district, India. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 144, 326329.
Hurford, A.J., and Green, P.F. (1983). The zeta calibration of fission-track dating. Isotope Geoscience 1, 285317.
Korisettar, R. (1994). Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy and sedimentation in the upland Deccan region, western India. Man and Environment XIX, 2941.
Korisettar, R., Venkatesan, T.R., Mishra, S., Rajaguru, S.N., Somayajulu, B.L.K., Tandon, S.K., Gogte, V.D., Ganjoo, R.K., and Kale, V.S. (1989). Discovery of a tephra bed in the Quaternary alluvial sediments of Pune district (Maharashtra), peninsular India. Current Science 58, 564567.
Le Bas, M.J., LeMaitre, R.W., Streckeisen, A., and Zanellin, B. (1986). A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram. Journal of Petrology 27, 745750.
Mishra, S., and Rajaguru, S.N. (1996). Comment on “New geochemical evidence for the Youngest Toba tuff in India”. Quaternary Research 46, 340341.
Mishra, S., Rajaguru, S.N. Quaternary Research 41, (1994). 396397.
Mishra, S., Venkatesan, T.R., Rajaguru, S.N., and Somayajulu, B.L.K. (1995). Earliest Acheulian industry from peninsular India. Current Anthropology 36, 847851.
Morgan, G.B., and London, D. (1996). Optimizing the electron microprobe analysis of hydrous alkali aluminosilicate glasses. American Mineralogist 81, 11761185.
Nakamura, N. (1974). Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg, Na and K in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 38, 757775.
Pearce, N.J.G., Perkins, W.T., Westgate, J.A., Gorton, M.P., Jackson, S.E., Neal, C.R., and Chenery, S.P. (1997). A compilation of new and published major and trace element data for NIST SRM 610 and NIST SRM 612 partially certified glass standard reference materials. Geostandards Newsletter 21, 115144.
Rose, W.I., and Chesner, C.A. (1987). Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 ka. Geology 15, 913917.
Sandhu, A.S., and Westgate, J.A. (1995). The correlation between reduction in fission-track diameter and areal track density in volcanic glass shards and its application in dating tephra beds. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 131, 289299.
Shackleton, N.J., Berger, A., and Peltier, W.R. (1990). An alternative astronomical calibration of the lower Pleistocene timescale based on ODP Site 677. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 81, 251261.
Shane, P.A.R., Westgate, J.A., Williams, M.A.J., and Korisettar, R. (1995). New geochemical evidence for the Youngest Toba tuff in India. Quaternary Research 44, 200204.
Staudacher, T.H., Jessberger, E.K., Dominik, B., Kirsten, T., and Schaeffer, O.A. (1982). 40 39 . Journal Geophysics 51, 111.
Westgate, J.A., and Gorton, M.P. (1981). Correlation techniques in tephra studies. Tephra Studies Reidel, Dordrecht.p. 73–94
Westgate, J.A. (1989). Isothermal plateau fission-track ages of hydrated glass shards from silicic tephra beds. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 95, 226234.
Williams, M.A.J., and Clarke, M.F. (1984). Late Quaternary environments in north central India. Nature 308, 633635.
Williams, M.A.J., and Clarke, M.F. (1995). Quaternary geology and prehistoric environments in the Son and Belan Valleys, north-central India. Geological Society of India Memoir 32, 282308.
Williams, M.A.J., and Royce, K. (1982). Quaternary geology of the middle Son Valley, north central India: implications for prehistoric archaeology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 38, 139162.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed