Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-78dcdb465f-6zfdk Total loading time: 1.405 Render date: 2021-04-18T12:52:04.928Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Late Quaternary vegetation, climate, and fire history of the Southeast Atlantic Coastal Plain based on a 30,000-yr multi-proxy record from White Pond, South Carolina, USA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2019

Teresa R. Krause
Department of the Interior Southwest Climate Adaptation Science Center, United States Geological Survey, 1064 E. Lowell Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
James M. Russell
Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
Rui Zhang
Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
John W. Williams
Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Stephen T. Jackson
Department of the Interior Southwest Climate Adaptation Science Center, United States Geological Survey, 1064 E. Lowell Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
E-mail address:


The patterns and drivers of late Quaternary vegetation dynamics in the southeastern United States are poorly understood due to low site density, problematic chronologies, and a paucity of independent paleoclimate proxy records. We present a well-dated (15 accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dates) 30,000-yr record from White Pond, South Carolina that consists of high-resolution analyses of fossil pollen, macroscopic charcoal, and Sporormiella spores, and an independent paleotemperature reconstruction based on branched glycerol dialkyl tetraethers. Between 30,000 and 20,000 cal yr BP, open Pinus-Picea forest grew under cold and dry conditions; elevated Quercus before 26,000 cal yr BP, however, suggest warmer conditions in the Southeast before the last glacial maximum, possibly corresponding to regionally warmer conditions associated with Heinrich event H2. Warming between 19,700 and 10,400 cal yr BP was accompanied by a transition from conifer-dominated to mesic hardwood forest. Sporormiella spores were not detected and charcoal was low during the late glacial period, suggesting megaherbivore grazers and fire were not locally important agents of vegetation change. Pinus returned to dominance during the Holocene, with step-like increases in Pinus at 10,400 and 6400 cal yr BP, while charcoal abundance increased tenfold, likely due to increased biomass burning associated with warmer conditions. Low-intensity surface fires increased after 1200 cal yr BP, possibly related to the establishment of the Mississippian culture in the Southeast.

Research Article
Copyright © University of Washington. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Alder, J., Hostetler, S.W., 2014. Global climate simulations at 3000 year intervals for the last 21,000 years with the GENMOM coupled atmosphere-ocean model. Climate of the Past 10, 29252978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alley, R.B., Mayewski, P.A., Sowers, T., Stuiver, M., Taylor, K.C., Clark, P.U., 1997. Holocene climatic instability: a prominent, widespread event 8200 yr ago. Geology 25, 483486.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartlein, P.J., Anderson, K.H., Anderson, P.M., Edwards, M.E., Mock, C.M., Thompson, R.S., Webb, R.S., Webb III, T., Whitlock, C., 1998. Paleoclimate simulations for North America over the past 21,000 years: features of the simulated climate and comparisons with paleoenvironmental data. Quaternary Science Reviews 17, 549585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, A., 1983. Dung Fungi: An Illustrated Guide to Coprophilous Fungi in New Zealand. Victoria University Press, Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
Bemmels, J.B, Dick, C.W., 2018. Genomic evidence of a widespread southern distribution during the Last Glacial Maximum for two eastern North American hickory species. Journal of Biogeography 45, 17391750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, A., Loutre, M., 1991. Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Science Reviews 10, 297317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blaauw, M., Christen, J.A., 2011. Flexible paleoclimate age-depth models using an autoregressive gamma process. Bayesian Analysis 6, 457474.Google Scholar
Blaga, C.I., Reichart, G.-J., Schouten, S., Lotter, A.F., Werne, J.P., Kosten, S., Mazzeo, N., Lacerot, G., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2010. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in lake sediments: can they be used as temperature and pH proxies? Organic Geochemistry 41, 12251234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blois, J.L., Williams, J.W., Fitzpatrick, M.C., Ferrier, S., Veloz, S., He, F., Liu, Z., Manion, G., Otto-Bliesner, B., 2013. Modeling the climatic drivers of spatial patterns in vegetation composition since the Last Glacial Maximum. Ecography 36, 460473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, G., Broecker, W., Johnsen, S., McManus, J., Labeyrie, L., Jouzel, J., Bonani, G., 1993. Correlations between climate records from North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice. Nature 365, 143147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braun, E.L., 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. MacMillan Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
Buckles, L.K., Weijers, J.W.H., Tran, X.-M. Waldron, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2014. Provenance of tetraether membrane lipids in a large temperate lake (Loch Lomond, UK): implications for glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT)-based palaeothermometry. Biogeosciences 11, 55395563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buizert, C., Gkinis, V., Severinghaus, J.P., He, F., Lecavalier, B.S., Kindler, P., Leuenberger, M., et al., 2014. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation. Science 345, 11771180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burney, D.A., Robinson, G.S., Burney, L.P., 2003. Sporormiella and the late Holocene extinctions in Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 1080010805.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christensen, N.L., 1981. Fire regimes in southeastern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H.A., Bonnicksen, T.M., Christensen, N.L., Lotan, J.E., Reinsers, W.A. (Eds.), Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report WO-26. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC, pp. 112136.Google Scholar
Christensen, N.L., 1988. Vegetation of Southeastern Coastal Plain. In: Barbour, M.G., Billings, W.D. (Eds.), North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 317363.Google Scholar
Cugny, C., Mazier, F., Galop, D., 2010. Modern and fossil non-pollen palynomorphs from the Basque mountains (western Pyrenees, France): the use of coprophilous fungi to reconstruct pastoral activity. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19, 391408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S.J., Clausen, H.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C.U., Oeschger, H., 1984. North Atlantic climatic oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. In: Hansen, J., Takahashi, T. (Eds.), Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 288298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, O.K., 1987. Spores of the dung fungus Sporormiella: increased abundance in historic sediments and before Pleistocene megafaunal extinction. Quaternary Research 28, 290294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Jonge, C., Hopmans, E.C., Zell, C.I., Kim, J.-H., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2014. Occurrence and abundance of 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in soils: implications for paleoclimate reconstruction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 141, 97112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delcourt, H.R., 1979. Late Quaternary vegetation history of the Eastern Highland Rim and adjacent Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee. Ecological Monographs 49, 255280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delcourt, H.R., Delcourt, P.A., 1994. Postglacial rise and decline of Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch and Carpinus caroliniana Walt. in eastern North America: predictable responses of forest species to cyclic changes in seasonality of climates. Journal of Biogeography 21, 137150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dyke, A.S., Moore, A., Robertson, L., 2003. Deglaciation of North America. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Open File 1574. Scholar
Fawcett, P.J., Werne, J.P., Anderson, R.S., Heikoop, J.M., Brown, E.T., Berke, M.A., Smith, S.J., et al., 2011. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials. Nature 470, 518521.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fowler, C., Konopik, E., 2007. The history of fire in the southern United States. Human Ecology Review 14, 165176.Google Scholar
Frost, C., 2006. History and future of the longleaf pine ecosystem. In: Jose, S., Jokela, E.J., Miller, D.L. (Eds.), The Longleaf Pine Ecosystem: Ecology, Silviculture, and Restoration. Springer New York, New York, pp. 948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fullerton, D.S., 1980. Preliminary correlation of post-Erie interstadial events: (16,000–10,000 radiocarbon years before present), central and eastern Great Lakes region, and Hudson, Champlain, and St. Lawrence Lowlands, United States and Canada, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1089. US Geological Survey, Washington DC.Google Scholar
Gavin, D.G., Oswald, W.W., Wahl, E.R., Williams, J.W., 2003. A statistical approach to evaluating distance metrics and analog assignments for pollen records. Quaternary Research 60, 356367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gellici, J., Harwell, S.L., Badr, A.W., Kiuchi, M., 2004. Hydrologic effects of the June 1998–August 2002 drought in South Carolina. State of South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Report. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Columbia, SC.Google Scholar
Gill, J.L., 2014. The ecological legacy of the late-Quaternary extinctions of megaherbivores. New Phytologist 201, 11631169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, J.L., McLauchlan, K.K., Skibbe, A.M., Goring, S.J., Zirbel, C., Williams, J.W., 2013. Linking abundances of the dung fungus Sporormiella to the density of bison: implications for assessing grazing by megaherbivores in paleorecords. Journal of Ecology 101, 11251136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, J.L., Williams, J.W., Jackson, S.T., Donnelly, J.P., Schellinger, G.C., 2012. Climatic and megaherbivory controls on late-glacial vegetation dynamics: a new, high-resolution, multi-proxy record from Silver Lake, Ohio. Quaternary Science Reviews 34, 6680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, J.L., Williams, J.W., Jackson, S.T., Lininger, K.B., Robinson, G.S., 2009. Pleistocene megafaunal collapse, novel plant communities, and enhanced fire regimes in North America. Science 326, 11001103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzales, L.M., Grimm, E.C., 2009. Synchronization of late-glacial vegetation changes at Crystal Lake, Illinois, USA with the North Atlantic Event Stratigraphy. Quaternary Research 72, 234245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goring, S., Williams, J.W., Blois, J.L., Jackson, S.T., Paciorek, C.J., Booth, R.K., Marlon, J.R., Blaauw, M., Christen, J.A., 2012. Deposition times in the northeastern United States during the Holocene: establishing valid priors for Bayesian age models. Quaternary Science Reviews 48, 5460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greller, A.M., 1988. Deciduous Forest. In: Barbour, M.G., Billings, W.D. (Eds.), North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 287316.Google Scholar
Grimm, E.C., 1987. CONISS: a Fortran 77 program for stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis by the method of incremental sum of squares. Computers and Geosciences 13, 1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimm, E.C., Maher, L.J. Jr., Nelson, D.M., 2009. The magnitude of error in conventional bulk-sediment radiocarbon dates from central North America. Quaternary Research 72, 301308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimm, E.C., Watts, W.A., Jacobson, G.L. Jr., Hansen, B.C.S., Almquist, H.R., Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., 2006. Evidence for Heinrich events in Florida. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 21972211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Halligan, J.J., Waters, M.R., Perrotti, A., Owens, I.J., Feinberg, J.M., Bourne, M.D., Fenerty, B., et al., 2016. Pre-Clovis occupation 14,550 years ago at the Page-Ladson site, Florida, and the peopling of the Americas. Science Advances 2, e1600375. ScholarPubMed
Hardt, B., Rowe, H.D., Springer, G.S., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., 2010. The seasonality of east central North American precipitation based on three coeval Holocene speleothems from southern West Virginia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 295, 342348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinrich, H., 1988. Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years. Quaternary Research 29, 142152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemmings, E.T., 1975. The Silver Springs site, prehistory in the Silver Springs Valley, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 28, 141158.Google Scholar
Higuera, P.E., Brubaker, L.B., Anderson, P.M., Hu, F.S., Brown, T., 2009. Vegetation mediated the impacts of postglacial climate change on fire regimes in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska. Ecological Monographs 79, 201219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higuera, P.E., Gavin, D.G., Bartlein, P.J., Hallett, D.J., 2010. Peak detection in sediment–charcoal records: impacts of alternative data analysis methods on fire-history interpretations. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 9961014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, C.A., 1983. A mammoth kill site in the Silver Springs Run. Florida Anthropologist 36, 8387.Google Scholar
Hopmans, E.C., Weijers, J.W.H., Schefuß, E., Herfort, L., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Schouten, S., 2004. A novel proxy for terrestrial organic matter in sediments based on branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 224, 107116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hudson, C., 1976. The Southeastern Indians. The University of Tennessee Press. 573 p.Google Scholar
Hussey, T.C., 1993. A 20,000-year history of vegetation and climate at Clear Pond, northeastern South Carolina. Master’s thesis, University of Maine, Orono.Google Scholar
Jackson, S.T., 1999. Techniques for analysing unconsolidated lake sediments. In: Jones, T., Rowe, N. (Eds.), Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques. Geological Society of London, Bath, pp. 274278.Google Scholar
Jackson, S.T., Blois, J.L., 2015. Community ecology in a changing environment: Perspectives from the Quaternary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, 49154921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, S.T., Williams, J.W., 2004. Modern analogs in Quaternary paleoecology: Here today, gone yesterday, gone tomorrow? Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 32, 495537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jensen, K., Lynch, E.A., Calcote, R., Hotchkiss, S.C., 2007. Interpretation of charcoal morphotypes in sediments form Ferry Lake, Wisconsin, USA: do different plant fuel sources produce distinctive charcoal morphotypes? The Holocene 17, 907915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, R.A., Williams, J.W., Jackson, S.T., 2017. Vegetation history since the last glacial maximum in the Ozark highlands (USA): a new record from Cupola Pond, Missouri. Quaternary Science Reviews 170, 174187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapp, R., King, J., Davis, O.K., 2000. Ronald O. Kapp’s Pollen and Spores. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation Publication, Nottingham, UK.Google Scholar
Karrow, P.F., Dreimanis, A., Barnett, P.J., 2000. A proposed diachronic revision of late Quaternary time-stratigraphic classification in the eastern and northern Great Lakes Area. Quaternary Research 54, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koch, P.L., Barnosky, A.D., 2006. Late Quaternary extinctions: state of the debate. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37, 215250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kunkel, K., Stevens, L., Stevens, S., Sun, L., Janssen, E., Wuebbles, D., Konrad, C. II, et al., 2013. Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the US Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast US. NOAA Technical Report 142-2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Liu, Y., Andersen, J.J., Williams, J.W., Jackson, S.T., 2013. Vegetation history in central Kentucky and Tennessee (USA) during the last glacial and deglacial periods. Quaternary Research 79, 189198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B.L., He, F., Brady, E.C., Tomas, R., Clark, P.U., Carlson, A.E., et al., 2009. Transient simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming. Science 325, 310314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loomis, S.E., Russell, J.M., Eggermont, H., Verschuren, D., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2014a. Effects of temperature, pH and nutrient concentration on branched GDGT distributions in East African lakes: implications for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Organic Geochemistry 66, 2537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loomis, S.E., Russell, J.M., Heureux, A.M., D’Andrea, W.J., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2014b. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 144, 173187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loomis, S.E., Russell, J.M., Ladd, B., Eggermont, H.R., Street-Perrott, F.A., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2011. Distribution of branched GDGTs in soils and lake sediments from Western Uganda: implications for a lacustrine paleothermometer. Organic Geochemistry 42, 739751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loomis, S.E., Russell, J.M., Ladd, B., Street-Perrott, F.A., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2012. Calibration and application of the branched GDGT temperature proxy on East African lake sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 357–358, 277288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loomis, S.E., Russell, J.M., Lamb, H.F., 2015. Northeast African temperature variability since the Late Pleistocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 423, 8090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loomis, S.E., Russell, J.M., Verschuren, D., Morrill, C., De Cort, G., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Olago, D., Eggermont, H., Street-Perrott, F.A., Kelly, M.A., 2017. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum. Science Advances 3, e1600815. ScholarPubMed
Lumibao, C.Y., Hoban, S.M., McLachlan, J., 2017. Ice ages leave genetic diversity ‘hotspots’ in Europe but not in Eastern North America. Ecology Letters 20, 14591468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marlon, J.R., Bartlein, P.J., Walsh, M.K., Harrison, S.P., Brown, K.J., Edwards, M.E., Higuera, P.E., et al., 2009. Wildfire responses to abrupt climate change in North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, 25192524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAndrews, J., Berti, A., Norris, G., 1973. Key to Quaternary Pollen and Spores of the Great Lakes Region. Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Publishing, Toronto.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohr, C., 1897. Timber Pines of the Southern United States. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Mustaphi, C.J.C., Pisaric, M.F.J., 2014. A classification for macroscopic charcoal morphologies found in Holocene lacustrine sediments. Progress in Physical Geography 38, 734754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niemann, H., Stadnitskaia, A., Wirth, S.B., Gilli, A., Anselmetti, F.S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Lehmann, M.F., 2012. Bacterial GDGTs in Holocene sediments and catchment soils of a high alpine lake: application of the MBT/CBT-paleothermometer. Climate of the Past 8, 889906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ordonez, A., Williams, J.W., 2013. Climatic and biotic velocities for woody taxa distributions over the last 16,000 years in eastern North America. Ecology Letters 16, 773781.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Overpeck, J.T., Webb, T., Prentice, I.C., 1985. Quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen spectra: dissimilarity coefficients and the method of modern analogs. Quaternary Research 23, 87108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearson, E.J., Juggins, S., Talbot, H.M., Weckström, J., Rosén, P., Ryves, D.B., Roberts, S.J., Schmidt, R., 2011. A lacustrine GDGT-temperature calibration from the Scandinavian Arctic to Antarctic: renewed potential for the application of GDGT-paleothermometry in lakes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 62256238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perrotti, A.G., 2018. Pollen and Sporormiella evidence for terminal Pleistocene vegetation change and megafaunal extinction at Page-Ladson, Florida. Quaternary International 446, 256268.Google Scholar
Peterse, F., Kim, J.-H., Schouten, S., Kristensen, D.K., Koç, N., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2009. Constraints on the application of the MBT/CBT palaeothermometer at high latitude environments (Svalbard, Norway). Organic Geochemistry 40, 692699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterse, F., van der Meer, J., Schouten, S., Weijers, J., Fierer, N., Jackson, R.B., Kim, J.-H., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2012. Revised calibration of the MBT–CBT paleotemperature proxy based on branched tetraether membrane lipids in surface soils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 96, 215229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Platt, W.J., Evans, G.W., Rathbun, S.L., 1988. The population dynamics of a long-lived conifer (Pinus palustris). The American Naturalist 131, 491525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollock, A.L., Beynen, P.E. van, DeLong, K.L., Polyak, V., Asmerom, Y., 2016. A speleothem-based mid-Holocene precipitation reconstruction for West-Central Florida. The Holocene 27, 987996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
PRISM Climate Group, , 2016. PRISM Climate Data (accessed January 7, 2016). Scholar
Pyne, S.J., 1982. Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
Raczka, M.F., Bush, M.B., Folcik, A.M., McMichael, C.H., 2016. Sporormiella as a tool for detecting the presence of large herbivores in the Neotropics. Biota Neotropica 16, e20150090. Scholar
Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L., et al., 2006. A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 111, D06102. Scholar
Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Warren, B.J., Blackwell, P.G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C.E., et al., 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55, 18691887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, G.S., Pigott Burney, L., Burney, D.A., 2005. Landscape paleoecology and megafaunal extinction in southeastern New York State. Ecological Monographs 75, 295315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roth, J.A., Laerm, J., 1980. A Late Pleistocene assemblaged from Edisto Island, South Carolina. Brimleyana 3, 119.Google Scholar
Royall, P.D., Delcourt, P.A., Delcourt, H.A., 1991. Late Quaternary paleoecology and paleoenvironments of the Central Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 157170.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, J.M., Hopmans, E.C., Loomis, S.E., Liang, J., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2018. Distributions of 5- and 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in East African lake sediment: effects of temperature, pH, and new lacustrine paleotemperature calibrations. Organic Geochemistry 117, 5659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sargent, C.S., 1884. Report on the Forests of North America (Exclusive of Mexico). United States Department of the Interior, Census Office, Washington, DC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2013. The organic geochemistry of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids: a review. Organic Geochemistry 54, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shakun, J.D., Carlson, A.E., 2010. A global perspective on Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 18011816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shakun, J.D., Clark, P.U., He, F., Marcott, S.A., Mix, A.C., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B., Schmittner, A., Bard, E., 2012. Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation. Nature 484, 4954.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shuman, B., Donnelly, J.P., 2006. The influence of seasonal precipitation and temperature regimes on lake levels in the northeastern United States during the Holocene. Quaternary Research 65, 4456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simpson, G., 2007. Analogue methods in palaeoecology: using the analogue package. Journal of Statistical Software 22, 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2016. Spatial heterogeneity of sources of branched tetraethers in shelf systems: the geochemistry of tetraethers in the Berau River delta (Kalimantan, Indonesia). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 186, 1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Rijpstra, W.I.C., Hopmans, E.C., Weijers, J.W.H., Foesel, B.U., Overmann, J., Dedysh, S.N., 2011. 13,16-Dimethyl Octacosanedioic Acid (iso-Diabolic Acid), a Common Membrane-Spanning Lipid of Acidobacteria Subdivisions 1 and 3. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, 41474154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyder, J.R., 1980. Analysis of coastal plain vegetation, Croatan National Forest, North Carolina. Veroffentlichongen des geobotanischen Institutes der eidgenoessiche technische Hochshule Stiftung Rubel in Zurich 69, 40113.Google Scholar
Soil Survey Staff, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Official Soil Series Descriptions (accessed July 05, 2018). Scholar
Soltis, D.E., Morris, A.B., McLachlan, J.S., Manos, P.S., Soltis, P.S., 2006. Comparative phylogeography of unglaciated eastern North America. Molecular Ecology 15, 42614293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spencer, J., Jones, K.B., Gamble, D.W., Benedetti, M.M., Taylor, A.K., Lane, C.S., 2017. Late-Quaternary records of vegetation and fire in southeastern North Carolina from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake. Quaternary Science Reviews 174, 3353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stambaugh, M.C., Varner, J.M., Jackson, S.T., 2017. The biogeography of longleaf pine: an interweave of climate, fire, and humans. In: Kirkman, L.K., Jack, S. (Eds.), Ecological Restoration of Longleaf Pine. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 1738.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Reimer, R.W., 2017. CALIB 7.1 (accessed January 09, 2017). Scholar
Sun, Q., Chu, G., Liu, M., Xie, M., Li, S., Ling, Y., Wang, X., Shi, L., Jia, G., , H., 2011. Distributions and temperature dependence of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in recent lacustrine sediments from China and Nepal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 116, G01008. Scholar
Svensson, A., Andersen, K.K., Bigler, M., Clausen, H.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Davies, S.M., Johnsen, S.J., Muscheler, R., Parrenin, F., Rasmussen, S.O., Röthlisberger, R., Seierstad, I., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., 2008. A 60 000 year Greenland stratigraphic ice core chronology. Climate of the Past 4, 4757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swezey, C.S., Fitzwater, B.A., Whittecar, G.R., Mahan, S.A., Garrity, C.P., Alemán González, W.B., Dobbs, K.M., 2016. The Carolina Sandhills: Quaternary eolian sand sheets and dunes along the updip margin of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, southeastern United States. Quaternary Research 86, 271286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swezey, C.S., Schultz, A.P., González, W.A., Bernhardt, C.E., Doar, W.R., Garrity, C.P., Mahan, S.A., McGeehin, J.P., 2013. Quaternary eolian dunes in the Savannah River valley, Jasper County, South Carolina, USA. Quaternary Research 80, 250264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, E.R., Wolff, E.C., Mulvaney, R., Steffensen, J.P., Johnsen, S.J., Arrowsmith, C., White, J.W.C., Vaughn, B., Popp, T., 2007. The 8.2 ka event from Greenland ice cores. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 7081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tierney, J.E., Russell, J.M., 2009. Distributions of branched GDGTs in a tropical lake system: implications for lacustrine application of the MBT/CBT paleoproxy. Organic Geochemistry 40, 10321036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tierney, J.E., Russell, J.M., Eggermont, H.R., Hopmans, E.C., Verschuren, D., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2010. Environmental controls on branched tetraether lipid distributions in tropical East African lake sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 4902–4218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Geel, B., Buurman, J., Brinkkemper, O., Schelvis, J., Aptroot, A., van Reenen, G., Hakbijl, T., 2003. Environmental reconstruction of a Roman Period settlement site in Uitgeest (The Netherlands), with special reference to coprophilous fungi. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 873883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voorhies, M.R., 1974. Pleistocene vertebrates with boreal affinities in the Georgia Piedmont. Quaternary Research 4, 8593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahl, E.R., 2004. A general framework for determining cutoff values to select pollen analogs with dissimilarity metrics in the modern analog technique. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 128, 263280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahlenberg, W., 1946. Longleaf Pine. Charles Lathrop Pack Forest Foundation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Watson, B., Williams, J.W., Russell, J.M., Jackson, S.T., Shane, L., Lowell, T., 2018. Temperature variations in the southern Great Lakes during the last deglaciation: comparison between pollen and GDGT proxies. Quaternary Science Reviews 182, 7892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watts, W.A., 1970. The full-glacial vegetation of northwestern Georgia. Ecology 51, 1733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watts, W.A., 1973. The vegetation record of a mid-Wisconsin interstadial in northwest Georgia. Quaternary Research 3, 257268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watts, W.A., 1980a. The Late Quaternary vegetation history of the southeastern United States. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 387409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watts, W.A., 1980b. Late-Quaternary vegetation history at White Pond on the Inner Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Quaternary Research 13, 187199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webb, S.D., 1974. Chronology of Florida Pleistocene mammals. In: Pleistocene Mammals of Florida. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, pp. 531.Google Scholar
Weber, Y., de Jonge, C., Rijpstra, W.I.C., Hopmans, E.C., Stadnitskaia, A., Schubert, C.J., Lehmann, M.F., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Niemann, H., 2015. Identification and carbon isotope composition of a novel branched GDGT isomer in lake sediments: evidence for lacustrine branched GDGT production. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 154, 118129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weijers, J., Schefuß, E., Schouten, S., Damsté, J.S.S., 2007a. Coupled thermal and hydrological evolution of tropical Africa over the last deglaciation. Science 315, 17011704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weijers, J., Schouten, S., Donker, J. van den, Hopmans, E., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2007b. Environmental controls on bacterial tetraether membrane lipid distribution in soils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 17, 703713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weijers, J., Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Geenevasen, J.A.J., David, O.R.P., Coleman, J.M., Pancost, R.D., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2006. Membrane lipids of mesophilic anaerobic bacteria thriving in peats have typical archaeal traits. Environmental Microbiology 8, 648657.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whitehead, D.R., 1964. Fossil pine pollen and full-glacial vegetation in southeastern North Carolina. Ecology 45, 767776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitehead, D.R., 1965. Palynology and Pleistocene phytogeography of unglaciated eastern North America. In: Wright, H.E., Jr., Frey, D.G. (Eds.), The Quaternary of the United States. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp. 417–432.Google Scholar
Whitehead, D.R., 1981. Late-Pleistocene vegetational changes in northeastern North Carolina. Ecological Monographs 51, 451471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitlock, C., Larsen, C.P.S., 2001. Charcoal as a fire proxy. In: Smol, J.P., Birks, H.J.B., Last, W.M. (Eds.), Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments: Volume 3 Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators. Springer, Dordrecht pp. 7597.Google Scholar
Whitmore, J., Gajewski, K., Sawada, M., Williams, J.W., Shuman, B., Bartlein, P.J., Minckley, T., et al., 2005. Modern pollen data from North America and Greenland for multi-scale paleoenvironmental applications. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 18281848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, J.W., Jackson, S.T., 2007. Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5, 475482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, J.W., Shuman, B.N., Webb, T. III, 2001. Dissimilarity analyses of late-Quaternary vegetation and climate in eastern North America. Ecology 82, 33463362.Google Scholar
Williams, J.W., Shuman, B.N., Webb, T. III, Bartlein, P.J., Leduc, P., 2004. Late Quaternary vegetation dynamics in North America: scaling from taxa to biomes. Ecological Monographs 74, 309334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willman, H., Frye, J., 1970. Pleistocene stratigraphy of Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 94. State of Illinois Department of Registration and Education, Urbana, Illinois.Google Scholar
Woltering, M., Atahan, P., Grice, K., Heijnis, H., Taffs, K., Dodson, J., 2014. Glacial and Holocene terrestrial temperature variability in subtropical east Australia as inferred from branched GDGT distributions in a sediment core from Lake McKenzie. Quaternary Research 82, 132145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, H.E. Jr., Mann, D.H., Glaser, P.H., 1983. Piston corers for peat and lake sediments. Ecology 65, 657659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zink, K.-G., Vandergoes, M.J., Mangelsdorf, K., Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., Schwark, L., 2010. Application of bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) to develop modern and past temperature estimates from New Zealand lakes. Organic Geochemistry 41, 10601066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Krause et al. supplementary material

Figure S1

PDF 200 KB

Krause et al. supplementary material

Figure S2

PDF 293 KB

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 56
Total number of PDF views: 236 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 02nd January 2019 - 18th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Late Quaternary vegetation, climate, and fire history of the Southeast Atlantic Coastal Plain based on a 30,000-yr multi-proxy record from White Pond, South Carolina, USA
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Late Quaternary vegetation, climate, and fire history of the Southeast Atlantic Coastal Plain based on a 30,000-yr multi-proxy record from White Pond, South Carolina, USA
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Late Quaternary vegetation, climate, and fire history of the Southeast Atlantic Coastal Plain based on a 30,000-yr multi-proxy record from White Pond, South Carolina, USA
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *