Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-cxxrm Total loading time: 0.427 Render date: 2021-11-30T08:26:18.716Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Evidence for Middle Palaeolithic occupation and landscape change in central Armenia at the open-air site of Alapars-1

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 August 2020

Ariel Malinsky-Buller*
MONREPOS, Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution, Schloss Monrepos, D - 56567 Neuwied, Germany
Phil Glauberman
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China
Keith Wilkinson
Department of Archaeology, Anthropology and Geography, University of Winchester, Department of Archaeology, Winchester, UK
Bo Li
Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
Ellery Frahm
Yale Initiative for the Study of Ancient Pyrotechnology, Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Boris Gasparyan
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia
Rhys Timms
Centre for Quaternary Research, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK
Daniel S. Adler
University of Connecticut, Department of Anthropology, Old World Archaeology, Storrs, Connecticut, USA
Jennifer Sherriff
Centre for Quaternary Research, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK
*Corresponding author at: Schloss Monrepos, D - 56567 Neuwied, Germany. E-mail address: (A. Malinsky-Buller).


Here we report the findings from excavations at the open-air Middle Palaeolithic site of Alapars-1 in central Armenia. Three stratified Palaeolithic artefact assemblages were found within a 6-m-thick alluvial-aeolian sequence, located on the flanks of an obsidian-bearing lava dome. Combined sedimentological and chronological analyses reveal three phases of sedimentation and soil development. During Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 5–3, the manner of deposition changes from alluvial to aeolian, with a development of soil horizons. Techno-typological analysis and geochemical sourcing of the obsidian artefacts reveal differential discard patterns, source exploitation, and artefact densities within strata, suggesting variability in technological organization during the Middle Palaeolithic. Taken together, these results indicate changes in hominin occupation patterns from ephemeral to more persistent in relation to landscape dynamics during the last interglacial and glacial periods in central Armenia.

Research Article
Copyright © University of Washington. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Contributed equally.

We dedicate this paper to the memory of Ofer Bar-Yosef, whose endless curiosity and enthusiasm will continue to guide our research.


Adler, D.S., Bar-Oz, G., Belfer-Cohen, A., Bar-Yosef, O., 2006. Ahead of the game: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic hunting behaviors in the southern Caucasus. Current Anthropology 47, 89118. https://doi.10.1086/432455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adler, D.S., Bar-Yosef, O., Belfer-Cohen, A., Tushabramishvili, N., Boaretto, E., Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Rink, W.J., 2008. Dating the demise: Neandertal extinction and the establishment of modern humans in the southern Caucasus. Journal of Human Evolution 55, 817833. https://doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.08.010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adler, D.S., Wilkinson, K.N., Blockley, S., Mark, D.F., Pinhasi, R., Schmidt-Magee, B.A., Nahapetyan, S., et al. , 2014. Early Levallois technology and the Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition in the Southern Caucasus. Science 345, 16091613. ScholarPubMed
Adler, D.S., Yeritsyan, B., Wilkinson, K., Pinhasi, R., Bar-Oz, G., Nahapetyan, S., Bailey, R., et al. , 2012. The Hrazdan Gorge Palaeolithic Project, 2008–2009. In: Avetisyan, P., Bobokhyan, A. (Eds.), Archaeology of Armenia in Regional Context. Proceedings of the International Conference Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Held on September 15–17, 2009 in Yerevan, Armenia. NAS RA Gitutyn Publishing House, Yerevan, pp. 21–37.Google Scholar
Aitken, M.J., 1998. An Introduction to Optical Dating: The Dating of Quaternary Sediments by the Use of Photon-stimulated Luminescence. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
Alonso-Zarza, A.M., Silva, P.G., 2002. Quaternary laminar calcretes with bee nests: evidences of small-scale climatic fluctuations, Eastern Canary Islands, Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 178, 119135. Scholar
Alonso-Zarza, A.M., Wright, V.P., 2010. Calcretes. Developments in Sedimentology 61, 225267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anovitz, L.M., Elam, J.M., Riciputi, L.R., Cole, D.R., Fayek, M., 2006. Obsidian hydration: a new paleothermometer. Geology 34, 517520. Scholar
Arenas-Abad, C., Vázquez-Urbez, M., Pardo-Tirapu, G., Sancho-Marcén, C., 2010. Fluvial and associated carbonate deposits. Developments in Sedimentology 61, 133175. Scholar
Arutyunyan, E.V., Lebedev, V.A., Chernyshev, I.V., Sagatelyan, A.K., 2007. Geochronology of Neogene-Quaternary volcanism of the Geghama Highland (Lesser Caucasus, Armenia). Doklady Earth Sciences 416, 10421046. Scholar
Badalian, R., Bigazzi, G., Cauvin, M.C., Chataigner, C., Jrbashyan, R., Karapetyan, S.G., Oddone, M., Poidevin, J.L., 2001. An international research project on Armenian archaeological sites: fission-track dating of obsidians. Radiation Measurements 34, 373378. Scholar
Bailey, G.N., Davidson, I., 1983. Site exploitation of territories and topography: two case studies from Palaeolithic Spain. Journal of Archaeological Science 10, 87116. Scholar
Bar-Oz, G., Weissbrod, L., Gasparian, B., Nahapetyan, S., Wilkinson, K., Pinhasi, R., 2012. Taphonomy and zooarchaeology of a high-altitude Upper Pleistocene faunal sequence from Hovk-1 Cave, Armenia. Journal of Archaeological Science 39, 24522463. Scholar
Bar-Yosef, O., 1981. The Epi-Palaeolithic complexes in the Southern Levant. In: Cauvin, P., Sanlaville, J. (Eds), Préhistoire Du Levant. CNRS, Paris, pp. 389408.Google Scholar
Binford, L.R., 1979. Organization and formation processes: looking at curated technologies. Journal of Anthropological Research 35, 255273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blockley, S.P.E., Pyne-O'Donnell, S.D.F., Lowe, J.J., Matthews, I.P., Stone, A., Pollard, A.M., Turney, C.S.M., Molyneux, E.G., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 19521960. Scholar
Boëda, E., 1995. Levallois: a volumetric construction, methods, a technique. In: Dibble, H.L., Bar-Yosef, O. (Eds.), The Definition and Interpretation of Levallois Technology. Monographs in World Archaeology, Ann-Arbor, pp. 4168.Google Scholar
Bordes, F., 1961. Typologie du Paléolithique Ancien et Moyen. CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
Bøtter-Jensen, L., McKeever, S.W., Wintle, A.G., 2003. Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimetry. Elsevier.Google Scholar
Breeze, P.S., Groucutt, H.S., Drake, N.A., White, T.S., Jennings, R.P., Petraglia, M.D., 2016. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ~250–70,000 years ago. Quaternary Science Reviews 144, 155185. Scholar
Burroni, D., Donahue, R.E., Pollard, A.M., Mussi, M., 2002. The surface alteration features of flint artefacts as a record of environmental processes. Journal of Archaeological Science 29, 12771287. Scholar
Candy, I., Black, S., Sellwood, B.W., Rowan, J.S., 2003. Calcrete profile development in Quaternary alluvial sequences, southeast Spain: implications for using calcretes as a basis for landform chronologies. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28, 169185. Scholar
Davies, S. M., Cryptotephras: the revolution in correlation and precision dating. 2015. Journal of Quaternary Science 30, 114130. doi:10.1002/jqs.2766CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dearing, J., 1999. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility: Using the Bartington MS2 System. Chi Publishing, Kenilworth.Google Scholar
Defleur, A.R., Desclaux, E., 2019. Impact of the last interglacial climate change on ecosystems and Neanderthals behavior at Baume Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France. Journal of Archaeological Science 104, 114124. Scholar
Defleur, A.R., Desclaux, E., Jabbour, R.S., Richards, G.D., 2020. The Eemian: global warming, ecosystem upheaval, demographic collapse and cannibalism at Moula-Guercy. A reply to Slimak and Nicholson (2020). Journal of Archaeological Science 117, 105113. Scholar
Delagnes, A., 2000. Blade production during the Middle Paleolithic in northwestern Europe. Acta Anthropologica Sinica 19, 169176.Google Scholar
Djamali, M., de Beaulieu, J-L., Shah-hosseini, M., Andrieu-Ponel, V., Ponel, P., Amini, A., Akhani, H., et al. , 2008. A Late Pleistocene long pollen record from the Urmia Lake, North Western Iran. Quaternary Research 69, 413420. Scholar
Douka, K., Higham, T., 2017. The chronological factor in understanding the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic of Eurasia. Current Anthropology 58, S480S490. Scholar
Egeland, C. P., Gasparian, B., Fadem, C.M., Nahapetyan, S., Arakelyan, D., Nicholson, C.M., 2016. Bagratashen 1, a stratified open-air Middle Paleolithic site in the Debed river valley of northeastern Armenia: A preliminary report. Archaeological Research in Asia, 8, 120. doi:10.1016/j.ara.2016.10.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fedoroff, N., Courty, M.A., Lacroix, E., Oleschko, K., 1994. Calcitic accretion on indurated volcanic materials (example of tepetates, Altiplano, Mexico). Transactions of the 15th World Congress of Soil Science, Acapulco, Mexico, 6a, 460473.Google Scholar
Fink, J.H., 1983. Structure and emplacement of a rhyolitic obsidian flow: Little Glass Mountain, Medicine Lake Highland, northern California. Geological Society of American Bulletin 94, 262280.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folk, R.L., Ward, W.C., 1957. Brazos River bar [Texas]; a study in the significance of grain size parameters. Journal of Sedimentary Research 27, 326. Scholar
Frahm, E., 2014. Characterizing obsidian sources with portable XRF: accuracy, reproducibility, and field relationships in a case study from Armenia. Journal of Archaeological Science 49, 105125. Scholar
Frahm, E., 2016. Can I get chips with that? Sourcing small obsidian artifacts down to microdebitage scales with portable XRF. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 9, 448467. Scholar
Frahm, E., Feinberg, J.M., 2015. Reassessing obsidian field relationships at Glass Buttes, Oregon. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2, 654665. Scholar
Frahm, E., Feinberg, J.M., Schmidt-Magee, B.A., Wilkinson, K., Gasparyan, B., Yeritsyan, B., Adler, D.S., 2016. Middle Palaeolithic toolstone procurement behaviors at Lusakert Cave 1, Hrazdan Valley, Armenia. Journal of Human Evolution 91, 7392. ScholarPubMed
Frahm, E., Feinberg, J.M., Schmidt-Magee, B.A., Wilkinson, K., Gasparyan, B., Yeritsyan, B., Karapetian, S., Meliksetian, K., Muth, M.J., Adler, D.S., 2014. Sourcing geochemically identical obsidian: multiscalar magnetic variations in the Gutansar Volcanic Complex and implications for Palaeolithic research in Armenia. Journal of Archaeological Science 47, 164178. Scholar
Frumkin, A., Comay, O., 2019. The last glacial cycle of the southern Levant: paleoenvironment and chronology of modern humans. Journal of Human Evolution. ScholarPubMed
Gale, S.J., Hoare, P.G., 1991. Quaternary Sediments. Belhaven Press, London.Google Scholar
Gamble, C., 1999. The Palaeolithic Societies of Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Gasparyan, B., Egeland, C.P., Adler, D.S., Pinhasi, R., Glauberman, P., Haydosyan, H., 2014. The Middle Paleolithic occupation of Armenia: summarizing old and new data. In: Gasparyan, B., Arimura, M. (Eds.), Stone Age of Armenia: A Guide-Book to the Stone Age Archaeology in the Republic of Armenia. Kanazawa University Press, Kanazawa, pp. 65105.Google Scholar
Geneste, J-M., 1985. Analyse d'industries Moustériennes du Périgord: Une Approche Technologique du Comportement des Groupes Humains Paléolithique Moyen. University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux.Google Scholar
Genise, J.F., Alonso-Zarza, A.M., Verde, M., Meléndez, A., 2013. Insect trace fossils in aeolian deposits and calcretes from the Canary Islands: Their ichnotaxonomy, producers, and palaeoenvironmental significance. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatolology Palaeoecology, 377, 110124. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghukasyan, R., Colonge, D., Nahapetyan, S., Ollivier, V., Gasparyan, B., Monchot, H., Chataigner, C., 2011. Kalavan-2 (north of lake Sevan, Armenia): A new late Middle Paleolithic site in the Lesser Caucasus. Archaeological, Ethnological and Anthropological Eurasia 38, 3951. Scholar
Glauberman, P., Gasparyan, B., Sherriff, J., Wilkinson, K., Li, B., Knul, M., Brittingham, A., et al. , 2020. Barozh 12: formation processes of a late Middle Paleolithic open-air site in western Armenia. Quaternary Science Reviews 236. Scholar
Glauberman, P., Gasparyan, B., Wilkinson, K., Frahm, E., Raczynski-Henk, Y., Haydosyan, H., Arakelyan, D., Karapetyan, S., Nahapetyan, S., Adler, D., 2016. Introducing Barozh 12: A Middle Palaeolithic open-air site on the edge of the Ararat Depression, Armenia. ARAMAZD-Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies IX (2), 720.Google Scholar
Glauberman, P., Thorson, R.M., 2012. Flint patina as an aspect of flaked stone taphonomy. Journal of Taphonomy 10, 2143.Google Scholar
Goudie, A.S., 1983. Calcrete. In: Goudie, A.S., Pye, K. (Eds.), Chemical Sediments and Geomorphology: Precipitates and Residua in the Near Surface Environment. Academic Press, London, p. 439.Google Scholar
Greenbaum, G., Kolodny, O., Hovers, E., Feldman, M.W., Friesem, D.E., 2018. Was inter-population connectivity of Neanderthals and modern humans the driver of the Upper Paleolithic transition rather than its product? Quaternary Science Reviews 217, 316329. Scholar
Groucutt, H.S., Petraglia, M.D., Bailey, G., Scerri, E.M., Parton, A., Clark-Balzan, L., Jennings, R. P., et al. , 2015. Rethinking the dispersal of Homo Sapiens out of Africa. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 24, 149164. https://doi.10.1002/evan.21455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grün, R., Stringer, C., McDermott, F., Nathan, R., Porat, N., Robertson, S., Taylor, L., Mortimer, G., Eggins, S., McCulloch, M., 2005. U-series and ESR analyses of bones and teeth relating to the human burials from Skhul. Journal of Human Evolution 49, 316334. ScholarPubMed
Hovers, E., 2009. The Lithic Assemblages of Qafzeh Cave. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
Huerta, P., Rodríguez-Berriguete, Á., Martín-García, R., Martín-Pérez, A., Fernández, Á.L.I., Alonso-Zarza, A.M., 2015. The role of climate and aeolian dust input in calcrete formation in volcanic islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Spain). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 417, 6679. Scholar
Kandel, A.W., Gasparyan, B., Allué, A., Bigga, G., Bruch, A.A., Cullen, V.L., Frahm, E., et al. , 2017. The earliest evidence for Upper Paleolithic occupation in the Armenian highlands at Aghitu-3 Cave. Journal of Human Evolution 110, 3768. ScholarPubMed
Kappenberg, A., Lehndorff, E., Pickarski, N., Litt, T., Amelung, W., 2019. Solar controls of fire events during the past 600,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 208, 97104. Scholar
Karapetian, S.G., Jrbashian, R.T., Mnatsakanian, A.Kh., 2001. Late collision rhyolitic volcanism in the north-eastern part of the Armenian highland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 112, 189220. Scholar
Kiro, Y., Goldstein, S.L., Garcia-Veigas, J., Levy, E., Kushnir, Y., Stein, M., Lazar, B., 2017. Relationships between lake-level changes and water and salt budgets in the Dead Sea during extreme aridities in the Eastern Mediterranean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 464, 211226. Scholar
Knox, G.J., 1977. Caliche profile formation, Saldanha Bay (South Africa). Sedimentology 24, 657674. Scholar
Kuhn, S.L., 1995. Mousterian Lithic Technology: An Ecological Perspective. Princeton University Press, Princeton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhn, S.L., Raichlen, D.A., Clark, A.E., 2016. What Moves Us? How Mobility and Movement Are at the Center of Human Evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 25, 8697. Scholar
Lane, C.S., Cullen, V.L., White, D., Bramham-Law, C.W.F., Smith, V.C., 2014. Cryptotephra as a dating and correlation tool in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science 42, 4250. Scholar
Lebedev, V.A., Chernyshev, I.V., Sagatelyan, A.K., Goltsman, Yu.V., Oleinikova, T.I., 2018. Miocene–Pliocene volcanism of central Armenia: geochronology and the role of AFC processes in magma petrogenesis. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology 12, 310331. Scholar
Lebedev, V.A., Chernyshev, I.V., Shatagin, K.N., Bubnov, S.N., Yakushev, A.I., 2013. The Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Geghama Highland, Lesser Caucasus, Armenia: Geochronology, isotopic Sr-Nd characteristics, and origin. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology 7, 204229. Scholar
Lebedev, V.A., Chernyshev, I.V., Yakushev, A.I., 2011. Initial time and duration of Quaternary magmatism in the Aragats neovolcanic area (Lesser Caucasus, Armenia). Doklady Earth Sciences 437, 532536. Scholar
Litt, T., Pickarski, N., Heumann, G., Stockhecke, M., Tzedakis, P.C., 2014. A 600,000 year long continental pollen record from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Quaternary Science Reviews 104, 3041. Scholar
Lowe, D.J., Hunt, J.B., 2001. A summary of terminology used in tephra-related studies. Les Dossiers de l'Archaéo-Logis 1, 1722.Google Scholar
Mather, A.E., Stokes, M., Whitfield, E., 2017. River terraces and alluvial fans: the case for an integrated Quaternary fluvial archive. Quaternary Science Reviews 166, 7490. Scholar
McCown, T.D., Keith, A., 1939. The Stone Age of Mt. Carmel II, The Fossil Human Remains from the Levalloiso-Mousterian. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
McPhie, J., Doyle, M., Allen, R., 1993. Volcanic Textures. A Guide to the Interpretation of Textures in Volcanic Rocks. University of Tasmania, Tasmania.Google Scholar
Meignen, L., 1998. A preliminary report on Hayonim Cave lithic assemblages in the context of the Near Eastern Middle Palaeolithic. In: Bar-Yosef, O., Akazawa, T., Aoki, T. (Eds.), Humans in Western Asia. Plenum Pres, New York, pp. 165180.Google Scholar
Meléndez, A., Alonso-Zarza, A.M., Sancho, C., 2011. Multi-storey calcrete profiles developed during the initial stages of the configuration of the Ebro Basin's exorrheic fluvial network. Geomorphology 134, 232248. Scholar
Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Bar-Yosef, O., Vandermeersch, B., Stringer, C., Joron, J.L., 1993. Thermoluminescence date for the Mousterian burial site of Es-Skhul, Mt. Carmel. Journal of Archaeological Science 20, 169–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Meignen, L., Joron, J-L., Tushabramishvili, N., 2010. Dating the early Middle Palaeolithic laminar industry from Djruchula Cave, Republic of Georgia. Paléorient 36, 163173. Scholar
Mitchell, J., Westaway, R., 1999. Chronology of Neogene and Quaternary uplift and magmatism in the Caucasus: constraints from K–Ar dating of volcanism in Armenia. Tectonophysics 304, 157186. Scholar
Moncel, M.-H., Pleurdeau, D., Pinhasi, R., Yeshurun, R., Agapishvili, T., Chevalier, T., Lebourdonnec, F.-X., et al. , 2015. The Middle Palaeolithic record of Georgia: a synthesis of the technological, economic and paleoanthropological aspects. Anthropologie LIII, 93125.Google Scholar
Neugebauer, I., Schwab, M.J., Waldmann, N.D., Tjallingii, R., Frank, U., Hadzhiivanova, E., Naumann, R., et al. , 2016. Hydroclimatic Variability in the Levant during the early last glacial (~117–75 Ka) derived from micro-facies analyses of deep Dead Sea sediments. Climate of the Past 12, 7590. Scholar
Palchan, D., Neugebauer, I., Amitai, Y., Waldmann, N.D., Schwab, M.J., Dulski, P., Brauer, A., Stein, M., Erel, Y., Enzel, Y., 2017. North Atlantic controlled depositional cycles in MIS 5e layered sediments from the deep Dead Sea basin. Quaternary Research 87, 168179. Scholar
Pentecost, A., 2005. Travertine. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
Petraglia, M.D., Potts, R., 1994. Water flow and the formation of early Pleistocene artifact sites in Olduvai Gorge. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 13, 228254. Scholar
Pickarski, N., Kwiecien, O., Langgut, D., Djamali, M., Litt, T., 2015a. Vegetation and environmental changes during the last interglacial in eastern Anatolia (Turkey): a new high-resolution pollen record from Lake Van. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 435, 145158. Scholar
Pickarski, N., Kwiecien, O., Langgut, D., Litt, T., 2015b. Abrupt climate and vegetation variability of eastern Anatolia during the last glacial. Climate of the Past 11, 14911505. Scholar
Pickarski, N., Litt, T., 2017. A new high-resolution pollen sequence at Lake Van, Turkey: insights into penultimate interglacial-glacial climate change on vegetation history. Climate of the Past 13, 689710. Scholar
Pinhasi, R., Gasparian, B., Nahapetyan, S., Bar-Oz, G., Weissbrod, L., Bruch, A.A., Hovsepyan, R., Wilkinson, K., 2011. Middle Palaeolithic human occupation of the high altitude region of Hovk-1, Armenia. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 38463857. Scholar
Pinhasi, R., Gasparian, B., Wilkinson, K., Bailey, R., Bar-Oz, G., Bruch, A.A., Chataigner, C., et al. , 2008. Hovk 1 and the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of Armenia: A preliminary framework. Journal of Human Evolution 55, 803816. ScholarPubMed
Pleurdeau, D., Moncel, M.H., Pinhasi, R., Yeshurun, R., Higham, T., Agapishvili, T., Bokeria, M., et al. , 2016. Bondi Cave and the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition in western Georgia (South Caucasus). Quaternary Science Reviews 146, 7798. Scholar
Randlett, M.-E., Bechtel, A., van der Meer, M.T.J., Peterse, F., Litt, T., Pickarski, N., Kwiecien, O., Stockhecke, M., Wehrli, B., Schubert, C.J., 2017. Biomarkers in Lake Van sediments reveal dry conditions in eastern Anatolia during 110.000–10.000 years B.P. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18, 571583. Scholar
Richter, C., Wolf, D., Walther, F., Meng, S., Sahakyan, L., Hovakimyan, H., Wolpert, T., Fuchs, M., Faust, D., 2020. New Insights into Southern Caucasian Glacial–Interglacial Climate Conditions Inferred from Quaternary Gastropod Fauna. Journal of Quaternary Science, Scholar
Rowe, P.J., Mason, J.E., Andrews, J.E., Marca, A.D., Thomas, L., Van Calsteren, P., Jex, C.N., Vonhof, H.B., Al-Omari, S., 2012. Speleothem isotopic evidence of winter rainfall variability in northeast Turkey between 77 and 6 Ka. Quaternary Science Reviews 45, 6072. .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schick, D.K., 1986. Stone Age Sites in the Making: Experiments in the Formation and Transformation of Archaeological Occurrences. BAR 319, International Series Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schroëder, B., 1969. The Lithic Industries from Jerf Ajla and their Bearing on the Problem of a Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition. New York: Columbia University. (Unpublished PhD thesis).Google Scholar
Schwarcz, H.P., Grun, R., Vandermeersch, B., Bar-Yosef, O., Valladas, H., Tchernov, E., 1988. ESR dates for the hominid burial site of Qafzeh in Israel. Journal of Human Evolution 17, 733737. Scholar
Shackley, M.L., 1974. Stream abrasion of chert implements. Nature 248, 501502. Scholar
Sherriff, J.E., Wilkinson, K.N., Adler, D.S., Arakelyan, D., Beverly, E.J., Blockley, S.P.E., Gasparyan, B., et al. , 2019. Pleistocene volcanism and the geomorphological record of the Hrazdan valley, central Armenia: linking landscape dynamics and the Palaeolithic record. Quaternary Science Review 226. Scholar
Slimak, L., Nicholson, C., 2020. Cannibals in the forest: a comment on Defleur and Desclaux (2019). Journal of Archaeological Science 117, 105034. Scholar
Solecki, R.L., Solecki, R., 1970. A new secondary site, flaking technique at the Nahr Ibrahim Cave, Lebanon. Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth 23, 137142.Google Scholar
Stevens, L.R., Djamali, M., Andrieu-Ponel, V., Louis de Beaulieu, J., 2012. Hydroclimatic variations over the last two glacial/interglacial cycles at Lake Urmia, Iran. Journal of Paleolimnology 47, 645660. Scholar
Stewart, A.L., McPhie, J., 2003. Internal structure and emplacement of an Upper Pliocene daref cryptodome, Milos Island, Greece. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 124, 129148. Scholar
Stockhecke, M., Sturm, M., Brunner, I., Schmincke, H.U., Sumita, M., Kipfer, R., Cukur, D., Kwiecien, O., Anselmetti, F.S., 2014. Sedimentary evolution and environmental history of Lake Van (Turkey) over the past 600 000 years. Sedimentology 61, 18301861. Scholar
Stockhecke, M., Timmermann, A., Kipfer, R., Haug, G.H., Kwiecien, O., Friedrich, T., Menviel, L., Litt, T., Pickarski, N., Anselmetti, F.S., 2016. Millennial to orbital-scale variations of drought intensity in the eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Science Reviews 133, 7795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timmermann, A., Friedrich, T., 2016. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration. Nature 538, 9295. ScholarPubMed
Tindale, N.B., 1974. Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain, Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits, and Proper Names. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Trigui, Y., Wolf, D., Sahakyan, L., Hovakimyan, H., Sahakyan, K., Zech, R., Fuchs, M., Wolpert, T., Zech, M., Faust, D., 2019. First calibration and application of leaf wax n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences and modern plants and soils in Armenia. Geosciences 9, 263. doi:10.3390/geosciences9060263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Matthews, A., Halicz, L., Frumkin, A., 2007. Desert speleothems reveal climatic window for African exodus of early modern humans. Geology 35, 831834. Scholar
Valladas, H., Reyss, J.-L., Joron, J.-L., Valladas, G., Bar-Yosef, O., Vandermeersch, B., 1988. Thermoluminescence dating of Mousterian ‘proto-Cro-Magnon’ remains from Israel and the origin of modern man. Nature 334, 614616. Scholar
Vandermeersch, B., 1981. Les Hommes Fossiles de Qafzeh, Israël. CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
Villa, P., Courtin, J., 1983. The interpretation of stratified sites: a view from underground. Journal of Archaeological Science 10, 267281. Scholar
Volodicheva, N., 2002. The Caucasus. In: Shahgedanova, M. (Ed.), The Physical Geography of Northern Eurasia. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 350376.Google Scholar
Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37, 2938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walling, D.E., Fang, D., Nicholas, A.P., Sweet, R.J., 2004. The grain size characteristics of overbank deposits on the floodplains of British lowland rivers. In: Golosov, V., Belyaev, V., Walling, D.E. (Eds.), Sediment Transfer through the Fluvial System. Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Moscow, August 2004. IAHS Press 283, Wallingford, pp. 226–234.Google Scholar
Williams, H., McBirney, A.R., 1979. Vulcanology, Freeman, Cooper and Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
Wolf, D., Baumgart, P., Meszner, S., Fülling, A., Haubold, F., Sahakyan, L., Meliksetian, Kh., Faust, D., 2016. Loess in Armenia—stratigraphic findings and palaeoenvironmental indications. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 127, 2939. Scholar
Wright, V.P., 1989. Terrestrial stromatolites and laminar calcretes: a review. Sedimentary Geology 65, 113. .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, V.P., 2007. Calcrete. In: Nash, D.J., McLaren, S.J. (Eds.), Geochemical Sediments and Landscapes. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Malinsky-Buller et al. Supplementary Materials

Malinsky-Buller et al. Supplementary Materials

Download Malinsky-Buller et al. Supplementary Materials(File)
File 325 KB
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Evidence for Middle Palaeolithic occupation and landscape change in central Armenia at the open-air site of Alapars-1
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Evidence for Middle Palaeolithic occupation and landscape change in central Armenia at the open-air site of Alapars-1
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Evidence for Middle Palaeolithic occupation and landscape change in central Armenia at the open-air site of Alapars-1
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *