Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey

  • Michael G. Burton (a1), C. Braiding (a1), C. Glueck (a2), P. Goldsmith (a3), J. Hawkes (a4), D. J. Hollenbach (a5), C. Kulesa (a6), C. L. Martin (a7), J. L. Pineda (a3), G. Rowell (a4), R. Simon (a2), A. A. Stark (a8), J. Stutzki (a2), N. J. H. Tothill (a1) (a9), J. S. Urquhart (a10), C. Walker (a6), A. J. Walsh (a11) and M. Wolfire (a12)...


We present the first results from a new carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the southern Galactic plane being conducted with the Mopra radio telescope in Australia. The 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 1–0 lines are being mapped over the $l = 305^{\circ }\text{--} 345^{\circ }, b = \pm 0.5^{\circ }$ portion of the fourth quadrant of the Galaxy, at 35 arcsec spatial and 0.1 km s−1 spectral resolution. The survey is being undertaken with two principal science objectives: (i) to determine where and how molecular clouds are forming in the Galaxy and (ii) to probe the connection between molecular clouds and the ‘missing’ gas inferred from gamma-ray observations. We describe the motivation for the survey, the instrumentation and observing techniques being applied, and the data reduction and analysis methodology. In this paper, we present the data from the first degree surveyed, $l = 323^{\circ } \text{--} 324^{\circ }, b = \pm 0.5^{\circ }$ . We compare the data to the previous CO survey of this region and present metrics quantifying the performance being achieved; the rms sensitivity per 0.1 km s−1 velocity channel is ~1.5 K for ${\rm ^{12}CO}$ and ~0.7 K for the other lines. We also present some results from the region surveyed, including line fluxes, column densities, molecular masses, ${\rm ^{12}CO/^{13}CO}$ line ratios, and ${\rm ^{12}CO}$ optical depths. We also examine how these quantities vary as a function of distance from the Sun when averaged over the 1 square degree survey area. Approximately 2 × 106M of molecular gas is found along the G323 sightline, with an average H2 number density of $n_{\text{H}_2} \sim 1$ cm−3 within the Solar circle. The CO data cubes will be made publicly available as they are published.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey
      Available formats


Corresponding author


Hide All
Abdo, A. A., et al. 2010, ApJ, 710, 133
Acero, F., et al. 2013, APh, 43, 276
Ackermann, M., et al. 2013, Sci, 339, 807
Actis, M., et al. 2011, ExA, 32, 193
Aharonian, F. A. 1991, Ap&SS, 180, 305
Aharonian, F., et al. 2005, Sci, 307, 1938
Aharonian, F., et al. 2006, ApJ, 636, 777
Aharonian, F., et al. 2008, A&A, 481, 401
Blitz, L., & Williams, J. P. 1999, in The Origin of Stars and Planetary Systems, ed.Lada, C. J. &Kylafis, N. D. (Kluwer Academic Publishers), 3
Bolatto, A. D., Wolfire, M., & Leroy, A. K. 2013, ARA&A, in press
Brand, J., & Blitz, L. 1993, A&A, 275, 67
Bronfman, L., Alvarez, H., Cohen, R. S., & Thaddeus, P. 1989, ApJS, 71, 481
Carey, S. J., et al. 2009, PASP, 121, 76
Cohen, R. S., & Thaddeus, P. 1977, ApJ, 217, L155
Combes, F. 1991, ARA&A, 29, 195
Dame, T. M., Hartmann, D., & Thaddeus, P. 2001, ApJ, 547, 792
Dame, T. M., & Thaddeus, P. 1985, ApJ, 297, 751
Dame, T. M., et al. 1987, ApJ, 322, 706
Elmegreen, B. G. 1996, IAUS, 169, 551
Elmegreen, B. G. 2007, ApJ, 668, 1064
Engargiola, G., Plambeck, R. L., Rosolowsky, E., & Blitz, L. 2003, ApJS, 149, 343
Gabici, S., & Aharonian, F. A. 2007, Ap&SS, 309, 465
Garwood, R. W. 2000, ASPC, 216, 243
Goldsmith, P. F. 2009, EASPS, 34, 89
Goldsmith, P. F., & Langer, W. D. 1999, ApJ, 517, 209
Gordon, M. A., & Burton, W. B. 1976, ApJ, 208, 346
Grenier, I. A., Casandjian, J.-M., & Terrier, R. 2005, Sci, 307, 1292
Henkel, C., Wilson, T. L., & Bieging, J. 1982, A&A, 109, 344
Hennebelle, P., & Pérault, M. 2000, A&A, 359, 1124
Heyer, M., Krawczyk, C., Duval, J., & Jackson, J. M. 2009, ApJ, 699, 1092
Hinton, J. A., & Hofmann, W. 2009, ARA&A, 47, 523
Jackson, J. M., Bania, T. M., Simon, R., Kolpak, M., Clemens, D. P., & Heyer, M. 2002, ApJ, 566, L81
Jackson, J. M., et al. 2006, ApJS, 163, 145
Jones, P. A., Burton, M. G., Cunningham, M. R., Tothill, N. F. H., & Walsh, A. J. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 221
Jones, P. A., et al. 2012, MNRAS, 419, 2961
Knapp, G. R., Stark, A. A., & Wilson, R. W. 1985, AJ, 90, 254
Krumholz, M. R., Dekel, A., & McKee, C. F. 2012, ApJ, 745, 69
Kwan, J., & Valdes, F. 1987, ApJ, 315, 92
Lada, C. J., Forbrich, J., Lombardi, M., & Alves, J. F. 2012, ApJ, 745, 190
Ladd, N., Purcell, C., Wong, T., & Robertson, S. 2005, PASA, 22, 62
Langer, W. D., Velusamy, T., Pineda, J. L., Goldsmith, P. F., Li, D., & Yorke, H. W. 2010, A&A, 521, L17
Lee, Y., Stark, A. A., Kim, H.-G., & Moon, D.-S. 2001, ApJS, 136, 137
Longmore, S. N., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 429, 987
Maxted, N. I., et al. 2012, MNRAS, 422, 2230
McClure-Griffiths, N. M., & Dickey, J. M. 2007, ApJ, 671, 427
McClure-Griffiths, N. M., Dickey, J. M., Gaensler, B. M., Green, A. J., Haverkorn, M., & Strasser, S. 2005, ApJS, 158, 178
McCray, R., & Kafatos, M. 1987, ApJ, 317, 190
McKee, C. F. 1989, ApJ, 345, 782
Nicholas, B. P., Rowell, G., Burton, M. G., Walsh, A. J., Fukui, Y., Kawamura, A., & Maxted, N. I. 2012, MNRAS, 419, 251
Nolan, P. L., et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31
Nyman, L.-A., Thaddeus, P., Bronfman, L., & Cohen, R. S. 1987, ApJ, 314, 374
Onishi, T. 2008, in Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies, eds. Wada, K. & Combes, F. (Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings; New York: Springer Science), 11
Ostriker, E. C., & Kim, W.-T. 2004, ASPC, 317, 248
Planck Collaboration, et al. 2011, A&A, 536, A19
Praton, E. A., & Schneider, S. E. 1994, ApJ, 422, 46
Roman-Duval, J., Jackson, J. M., Heyer, M., Rathborne, J., & Simon, R. 2010, ApJ, 723, 492
Scoville, N. Z., & Solomon, P. M. 1975, ApJ, 199, L105
Solomon, P. M., Rivolo, A. R., Barrett, J., & Yahil, A. 1987, ApJ, 319, 730
Stutzki, J. 2009, ASPC, 417, 11
Thronson, H. A. Jr, et al. 1986, AJ, 91, 1350
Vallée, J. P. 2008, AJ, 135, 1301
van Dishoeck, E. F., & Black, J. H. 1986, ApJS, 62, 109
Walsh, A. J., et al. 2011, MNRAS, 416, 1764
Wolfire, M. G., McKee, C. F., Hollenbach, D., & Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2003, ApJ, 587, 278
Wong, T., et al. 2008, MNRAS, 386, 1069



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed