Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Fraction of Ionizing Photons Escaping from High-Redshift Galaxies

  • Jhan A. Srbinovsky (a1) and J. Stuart B. Wyithe (a1)

Abstract

The fraction (fesc) of ionizing photons that escape their host galaxy and so are able to ionize hydrogen in the intergalactic medium is a critical parameter in studies of the reionization era. In this paper we constrain fesc at high redshift by modelling the observed Lyα transmission. Using an N-body simulation of the cosmic web, we first model an ionizing background due to star-bursting galaxies. We then extract an ensemble of mock absorption spectra from the simulation and compute the mean transmission. We adjust the free parameter, fesc in our model of the ionizing background to reproduce the observed transmission. We find that fesc increases with the minimum galaxy mass considered to contribute to the ionizing background, and that at high redshift fesc must be greater than 5% irrespective of galaxy mass. Based on our numerical results we calibrate a semi-analytic model which shows that the ionizing background observed at z ∼ 5.5–6 implies a sufficient number of ionizing photons to have reionized the Universe by z ∼ 6. However, if the minimum mass for star-formation were ≳109 M⊙, the ionizing background would be over-produced at z ≲ 5. In summary, our results indicate that the Universe was reionized by low mass galaxies.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Fraction of Ionizing Photons Escaping from High-Redshift Galaxies
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Fraction of Ionizing Photons Escaping from High-Redshift Galaxies
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Fraction of Ionizing Photons Escaping from High-Redshift Galaxies
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

BCorresponding author. Email: swyithe@unimelb.edu.au

References

Hide All
Alvarez, M. A., Bromm, V. & Shapiro, P. R., 2006, ApJ, 639, 621
Barkana, R. & Loeb, A., 2001, ApJS, 349, 125
Bergvall, N., Zackrisson, E., Andersson, B.-G., Arnberg, D., Masegosa, J. & Östlin, G., 2006, A&A, 448, 513
Bland-Hawthorn, J. & Maloney, P. R., 1999, ApJ, 510, L33
Bolton, J. S. & Haehnelt, M. G., 2007, MNRAS, 382, 325
Bolton, J. S., Haehnelt, M. G., Viel, M. & Springel, V., 2005, MNRAS, 357, 1178
Bond, J.R., Cole, S., Efstathiou, G. & Kaiser, N., 1991, ApJ, 379, 440
Bouwens, R. J., Illingworth, G. D., Franx, M. & Ford, H., 2007, ApJ, 670, 928
Chen, H.-W., Prochaska, J. X. & Gnedin, N. Y., 2007, ApJ, 667, L125
Choudhury, T. R. & Ferrara, A., 2005, MNRAS, 361, 577
Ciardi, B., Bianchi, S. & Ferrara, A., 2002, MNRAS, 331, 463
Clarke, C. & Oey, M. S., 2002, MNRAS, 337, 1299
Croft, R. A. C., 2004, ApJ, 610, 642
Deharveng, J.-M., Buat, V., Le Brun, V., Milliard, B., Kunth, D., Shull, J. M. & Gry, C., 2001, A&A, 375, 805
Dijkstra, M., Haiman, Z., Rees, M. J. & Weinberg, D. H., 2004, ApJ, 601, 666
Dove, J. B. & Shull, J. M., 1994, ApJ, 430, 222
Dove, J. B., Shull, J. M. & Ferrara, A., 2000, ApJ, 531, 846
Efstathiou, G., 1992, MNRAS, 256, 43
Fan, X., Narayanan, V. K., Strauss, M. A., White, R. L., Becker, R. H., Pentericci, L. & Rix, H. W., 2002, AJ, 123, 1247
Fan, X. et al. , 2006, AJ, 132, 117
Faucher-Giguere, C., Lidz, A., Hernquist, L., Zaldarriaga, M. & 2008, ApJ, 688, 85
Fernández-Soto, A., Lanzetta, K.M. & Chen, H.-W., 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1215
Fujita, A., Martin, C. L., Mac Low, M.-M. & Abel, T., 2003, ApJ, 599, 50
Furlanetto, S. R. & Oh, S. P., 2005, MNRAS, 363, 1031
Giallongo, E., Cristiani, S., D'Odorico, S. & Fontana, A., 2002, ApJ, 568, L9
Gnedin, N.Y., 2008, ApJL, 673, L1
Gnedin, N.Y. & Hamilton, A. J. S., 2002, MNRAS, 334, 107
Gnedin, N.Y. & Hui, L., 1998, MNRAS, 296, 44
Gnedin, N.Y., Kravtsov, A. V. & Chen, H.-W., 2008, ApJ, 672, 765
Grimes, J. P. et al. , 2007, ApJ, 668, 891
Heckman, T. M., Sembach, K. R., Meurer, G. R., Leitherer, C., Calzetti, D. & Martin, C. L., 2001, ApJ, 558, 56
Hui, L., Gnedin, N.Y. & Zhang, Y., 1997, ApJ, 486, 599
Hurwitz, M., Jelinsky, P. & Dixon, W. V. D., 1997, ApJ, 481, L31
Inoue, A. K., Iwata, I. & Deharveng, J.-M., 2006, MNRAS, 371, L1
Inoue, A. K., Iwata, I., Deharveng, J.-M., Buat, V. & Burgarella, D., 2005, A&A, 435, 471
Kitayama, T., Yoshida, N., Susa, H. & Umemura, M., 2004, ApJ, 613, 631
Komatsu, E. et al. , 2009, ApJS, 180, 330
Lai, K., Lidz, A., Hernquist, L. & Zaldarriaga, M., 2006, ApJ, 644, 61
Leitherer, C. et al. , 1999, ApJS, 123, 3
Lidz, A., Oh, S. P. & Furlanetto, S. R., 2006, ApJ, 639, L47
Lidz, A., Zahn, O., McQuinn, M., Zaldarriaga, M., Dutta, S. Hernquist, L., 2007, ApJ, 659, 865
Loeb, A., Barkana, R. & Hernquist, L., 2005, ApJ, 620, 553
Madau, P., Haardt, F. & Rees, M. J., 1999, ApJ, 514, 648
Malkan, M., Webb, W. & Konopacky, Q., 2003, ApJ, 598, 878
McDonald, P., Seljak, U., Cen, R., Bode, P. & Ostriker, J. P., 2005, MNRAS, 360, 1471
McQuinn, M., Lidz, A., Zahn, O., Dutta, S., Hernquist, L. & Zaldarriaga, M., 2007, MNRAS, 377, 1043
Meiksin, A. & White, M., 2004, MNRAS, 350, 1107
Miralda-Escudé, J., 2003, ApJ, 597, 66
Miralda-Escudé, J., Haehnelt, M. & Rees, M. J., 2000, ApJ, 530, 1
Press, W. H. & Schechter, P., 1974, ApJ, 187, 425
Prochaska, J. X., Herbert-Fort, S. & Wolfe, A. M., 2005, ApJ, 635, 123
Razoumov, A. O. & Sommer-Larsen, J., 2006, ApJ, 651, L89
Scalo, J., 1998, ASPC, 142, 201
Scannapieco, E., Schneider, R. & Ferrara, A., 2003, ApJ, 589, 35
Schaye, J., 2006, ApJ, 643, 59
Schaye, J., Aguirre, A., Kim, T.-S., Theuns, T., Rauch, M. & Sargent, W. L. W., 2003, ApJ, 596, 768
Schneider, R., Salvaterra, R., Ferrara, A. & Ciardi, B., 2006, MNRAS, 369, 825
Shapley, A. E., Steidel, C. C., Pettini, M., Adelberger, K. L. & Erb, D. K., 2006, ApJ, 651, 688
Sheth, R. K. Tormen, G., 1999, MNRAS, 308, 119
Siana, B. et al. , 2007, ApJ, 668, 62
Songaila, A., 2004, AJ, 127, 2598
Srbinovsky, J. A. & Wyithe, J. S. B., 2007, MNRAS, 374, 627
Steidel, C. C., Pettini, M. & Adelberger, K. L., 2001, ApJ, 546, 665
Storrie-Lombardi, L. J., McMahon, R. G., Irwin, M. J. & Hazard, C., 1994, ApJ, 427, L13
Thoul, A. A. & Weinberg, D. H., 1996, ApJ, 465, 608
Whalen, D., Abel, T. & Norman, M. L., 2004, ApJ, 610, 14
Wood, K. & Loeb, A., 2000, ApJ, 545, 86
Wyithe, J. S. B. & Cen, R., 2007, ApJ, 659, 890
Wyithe, J. S. B. & Loeb, A., 2003, ApJ, 586, 693
Wyithe, S., Bolton, J. & Haehnelt, M., 2007, ArXiv e-prints, 708
Zahn, O., Lidz, A., McQuinn, M., Dutta, S., Hernquist, L., Zaldarriaga, M. & Furlanetto, S. R., 2007, ApJ, 654, 12

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed