Previous studies examining the role of single foods or nutrients in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have produced inconsistent findings. Few studies have examined associations for dietary patterns, which may more accurately reflect patterns of consumption and the complexity of dietary intake. The objective of the present study was to examine whether dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were associated with NHL risk.
Factor analysis identified two major dietary patterns: (i) a ‘Meat, Fat and Sweets’ dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of French fries, red meat, processed meat, pizza, salty snacks, sweets and desserts, and sweetened beverages; and (ii) a ‘Fruit, Vegetables and Starch’ dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruit, fish, and cereals and starches. In multivariable logistic regression models, the ‘Meat, Fat and Sweets’ dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of overall NHL (ORQ4
Q1 = 3·6, 95 % CI 1·9, 6·8; P
trend = 0·0004), follicular lymphoma (ORQ4
Q1 = 3·1, 95 % CI 1·2, 8·0; P
trend = 0·01), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ORQ4
Q1 = 3·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 9·0; P
trend = 0·09) and marginal zone lymphoma (ORQ4
Q1 = 8·2, 95 % CI 1·3, 51·2; P
trend = 0·05). No association with overall or subtype-specific risk was detected for the ‘Fruit, Vegetables and Starch’ dietary pattern. No evidence of heterogeneity was detected across strata of age, sex, BMI, smoking status or alcohol consumption.