Skip to main content Accessibility help

Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis

  • V. A. Morgan (a1) (a2), J. J. McGrath (a3) (a4), A. Jablensky (a2), J. C. Badcock (a5) (a6), A. Waterreus (a1), R. Bush (a7), V. Carr (a8) (a9), D. Castle (a10) (a11), M. Cohen (a12) (a13), C. Galletly (a14) (a15) (a16), C. Harvey (a10) (a17), B. Hocking (a18), P. McGorry (a10) (a19) (a20), A. L. Neil (a21), S. Saw (a22), S. Shah (a1), H. J. Stain (a23) (a24) and A. Mackinnon (a19) (a20)...



There are insufficient data from nationwide surveys on the prevalence of specific psychotic disorders and associated co-morbidities.


The 2010 Australian national psychosis survey used a two-phase design to draw a representative sample of adults aged 18–64 years with psychotic disorders in contact with public treatment services from an estimated resident population of 1 464 923 adults. This paper is based on data from 1642 participants with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 psychotic disorder. Its aim is to present estimates of treated prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of psychosis, and to describe the cognitive, physical health and substance use profiles of participants.


The 1-month treated prevalence of psychotic disorders was 3.10 cases per 1000 population aged 18–64 years, not accounting for people solely accessing primary care services; lifetime morbid risk was 3.45 per 1000. Mean premorbid intelligence quotient was approximately 0.5 s.d.s below the population mean; current cognitive ability (measured with a digit symbol coding task) was 1.6 s.d.s below the population mean. For both cognitive tests, higher scores were significantly associated with better independent functioning. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high, affecting 60.8% of participants, and pervasive across diagnostic groups. Of the participants, two-thirds (65.9%) were current smokers, 47.4% were obese and 32.4% were sedentary. Of the participants, half (49.8%) had a lifetime history of alcohol abuse/dependence and 50.8% lifetime cannabis abuse/dependence.


Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive, integrative models of recovery to maximize the potential for good health and quality of life for people with psychotic illness.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis
      Available formats


The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution licence

Corresponding author

* Address for correspondence: V. A. Morgan, Ph.D., Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Research Unit M571, School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, WA, Australia. (Email:


Hide All
Alberti, KG, Eckel, RH, Grundy, SM, Zimmet, PZ, Cleeman, JI, Donato, KA, Fruchart, JC, James, WP, Loria, CM, Smith, SC (2009). Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 120, 16401645.
Alonzo, TA, Pepe, MS, Lumley, T (2003). Estimating disease prevalence in two-phase studies. Biostatistics 4, 313326.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008). National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. Catalogue no. 4326.0. Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra.
Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (2011). Customised data provided by the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank ( which is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the Pratt Foundation; Ramsay Health Care and the Schizophrenia Research Institute.
Babor, TF, Higgins-Biddle, JC, Saunders, JB, Monteiro, MG (2001). AUDIT. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Guidelines For Use in Primary Care, 2nd edn. WHO/MSD/01.6a. World Health Organization: Geneva.
Berns, S, Uzelac, S, Gonzalez, C, Jaeger, J (2007). Methodological considerations of measuring disability in bipolar disorder: validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning. Bipolar Disorders 9, 310.
Biessels, GJ, Staekenborg, S, Brunner, E, Brayne, C, Scheltens, P (2006). Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Lancet Neurology 5, 6474.
Bobes, J, Arango, C, Garcia-Garcia, M, Rejas, J (2010). Healthy lifestyle habits and 10-year cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: an analysis of the impact of smoking tobacco in the CLAMORS schizophrenia cohort. Schizophrenia Research 119, 101109.
Brands, AM, Biessels, GJ, de Haan, EH, Kappelle, LJ, Kessels, RP (2005). The effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 28, 726735.
Castle, D, Jablensky, A, McGrath, J, Carr, V, Morgan, VA, Waterreus, A, Valuri, G, Stain, H, McGuffin, P, Farmer, A (2006). The Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP): development, reliability and applications. Psychological Medicine 36, 6980.
Craig, CL, Marshall, AL, Sjöström, M, Bauman, AE, Booth, ML, Ainsworth, BE, Pratt, M, Ekelund, U, Yngve, A, Sallis, JF, Oja, P (2003). International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 35, 13811395.
Crawford, JR, Deary, IJ, Starr, J, Whalley, LJ (2001). The NART as an index of prior intellectual functioning: a retrospective validity study covering a 66-year interval. Psychological Medicine 31, 451458.
Daumit, GL, Dickerson, FB, Wang, NY, Dalcin, A, Jerome, GJ, Anderson, CA, Young, DR, Frick, KD, Yu, A, Gennusa, JV III, Oefinger, M, Crum, RM, Charleston, J, Casagrande, SS, Guallar, E, Goldberg, RW, Campbell, LM, Appel, LJ (2013). A behavioral weight-loss intervention in persons with serious mental illness. New England Journal of Medicine 368, 15941602.
De Hert, M, Correll, CU, Bobes, J, Cetkovich-Bakmas, M, Cohen, D, Asai, I, Detraux, J, Gautam, S, Moller, HJ, Ndetei, DM, Newcomer, JW, Uwakwe, R, Leucht, S (2011). Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care. World Psychiatry 10, 5277.
Dickinson, D, Gold, J, Dickerson, F, Medoff, D, Dixon, L (2008). Evidence of exacerbated cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients with comorbid diabetes. Psychosomatics 49, 123131.
Dickinson, D, Ramsey, ME, Gold, JM (2007). Overlooking the obvious: a meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 532542.
Dipasquale, S, Pariante, CM, Dazzan, P, Aguglia, E, McGuire, P, Mondelli, V (2013). The dietary pattern of patients with schizophrenia: a systematic review. Journal of Psychiatric Research 47, 197207.
Erickson, KI, Voss, MW, Prakash, RS, Basak, C, Szabo, A, Chaddock, L, Kim, JS, Heo, S, Alves, H, White, SM, Wojcicki, TR, Mailey, E, Vieira, VJ, Martin, SA, Pence, BD, Woods, JA, McAuley, E, Kramer, AF (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 30173022.
Galletly, CA, Foley, DL, Waterreus, A, Watts, GF, Castle, DJ, McGrath, JJ, Mackinnon, A, Morgan, VA (2012). Cardiometabolic risk factors in people with psychotic disorders: The second Australian national survey of psychosis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 46, 753761.
Gao, L, Matthews, FE, Sargeant, LA, Brayne, C (2008). An investigation of the population impact of variation in HbA1c levels in older people in England and Wales: from a population based multi-centre longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 8, 54.
Gold, JM (2004). Cognitive deficits as treatment targets in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 72, 2128.
Gold, JM, Goldberg, RW, McNary, SW, Dixon, LB, Lehman, AF (2002). Cognitive correlates of job tenure among patients with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 13951402.
Green, MF, Kern, RS, Braff, DL, Mintz, J (2000). Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the ‘right stuff’? Schizophrenia Bulletin 26, 119136.
Han, M, Huang, XF, Chen da, C, Xiu, M, Kosten, TR, Zhang, XY (2013). Diabetes and cognitive deficits in chronic schizophrenia: a case–control study. PLOS ONE 8, e66299.
Heatherton, TF, Kozlowski, LT, Frecker, RC, Fagerström, K-O (1991). The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs 86, 11191127.
Heinrichs, RW, Ammari, N, Miles, AA, McDermid Vaz, S (2010). Cognitive performance and functional competence as predictors of community independence in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 381387.
International Diabetes Federation (2006). The IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome. International Diabetes Federation: Brussels.
Jablensky, A, McGrath, J, Herrman, H, Castle, D, Gureje, O, Morgan, VA, Korten, A, Harvey, C (2000). Psychotic disorders in urban areas: an overview of the Study on Low Prevalence Disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 34, 221236.
Jablensky, A, McGrath, J, Herrman, H, Castle, D, Gureje, O, Morgan, VA, Korten, A, on behalf of the Low Prevalence Disorders Study Group (1999). People Living with Psychotic Illness: An Australian Study 1997–98. National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: Report 4. National Mental Health Strategy. Mental Health Branch, Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care: Canberra ($File/psych.pdf). Accessed 28 November 2013.
Jablensky, AJ, Kirkbride, JB, Jones, PB (2011). The epidemiological horizon. In Schizophrenia (ed. Weinberger, D. R. and Harrison, P. J.), pp. 185225. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford.
Jaeger, J, Berns, SM, Czobor, P (2003). The multidimensional scale of independent functioning: a new instrument for measuring functional disability in psychiatric populations. Schizophrenia Bulletin 29, 153168.
Jerrell, JM, McIntyre, RS, Black, GB (2012). Economic grand rounds: economic costs of failure to monitor adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics: an underestimated factor. Psychiatric Services 63, 202204.
John, AP, Koloth, R, Dragovic, M, Lim, SC (2009). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Australians with severe mental illness. Medical Journal of Australia 190, 176179.
Jones, DT (2012). Neural networks, cognition, and diabetes: what is the connection? Diabetes 61, 16531655.
Julious, SA (2004). Using confidence intervals around individual means to assess statistical significance between two means. Pharmaceutical Statistics 3, 217222.
Kessler, RC, Angermeyer, M, Anthony, JC, De Graaf, R, Demyttenaere, K, Gasquet, I, De Girolamo, G, Gluzman, S, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Kawakami, N, Karam, A, Levinson, D, Mora, MEM, Oakley Browne, MA, Posada-Villa, J, Stein, DJ, Tsang, CHA, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Lee, S, Heeringa, S, Pennell, B-E, Berglund, P, Gruber, MJ, Petukhova, M, Chatterji, S, Üstün, TB, on behalf of the WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2007). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry 6, 168176.
Khandaker, GM, Barnett, JH, White, IR, Jones, PB (2011). A quantitative meta-analysis of population-based studies of premorbid intelligence and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 132, 220227.
Kodesh, A, Goldshtein, I, Gelkopf, M, Goren, I, Chodick, G, Shalev, V (2012). Epidemiology and co-morbidity of severe mental illnesses in the community: findings from a computerized mental health registry in a large Israeli health organization. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47, 17751782.
Laursen, TM (2011). Life expectancy among persons with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. Schizophrenia Research 131, 101104.
Lawrence, D, Hancock, KJ, Kisely, S (2013). The gap in life expectancy from preventable physical illness in psychiatric patients in Western Australia: retrospective analysis of population based registers. British Medical Journal 346, f2539.
Lawrence, D, Holman, C, Jablensky, A (2001). Duty to Care. Preventable Physical Illness in People with Mental Illness. The University of Western Australia: Perth.
Lawrence, D, Kisely, S (2010). Inequalities in healthcare provision for people with severe mental illness. Journal of Psychopharmacology 24, 6168.
Leucht, S, Lasser, R (2006). The concepts of remission and recovery in schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry 39, 161170.
Lindenmayer, JP, Khan, A, Kaushik, S, Thanju, A, Praveen, R, Hoffman, L, Cherath, L, Valdez, G, Wance, D (2012). Relationship between metabolic syndrome and cognition in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 142, 171176.
Maudsley, H (1879). The Pathology of Mind. Macmillan: London.
McGuffin, PC, Farmer, A, Harvey, I (1991). A polydiagnostic application of operational criteria in studies of psychotic illness. Development and reliability of the OPCRIT system. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 764770.
Meyer, JM, Nasrallah, HA, McEvoy, JP, Goff, DC, Davis, SM, Chakos, M, Patel, JK, Keefe, RS, Stroup, TS, Lieberman, JA (2005). The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials Of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial: clinical comparison of subgroups with and without the metabolic syndrome. Schizophrenia Research 80, 918.
Mitchell, AJ, Vancampfort, D, Sweers, K, van Winkel, R, Yu, W, De Hert, M (2013). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia and related disorders – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 306318.
Morgan, VA, Waterreus, A, Jablensky, A, Mackinnon, A, McGrath, J, Carr, V, Bush, R, Castle, D, Cohen, M, Harvey, C, Galletly, C, Stain, H, Neil, A, McGorry, P, Hocking, B, Shah, S, Saw, S (2011). People Living with Psychotic Illness 2010. Report on the Second Australian National Survey. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing: Canberra.
Morgan, VA, Waterreus, A, Jablensky, A, Mackinnon, A, McGrath, JJ, Carr, V, Bush, R, Castle, D, Cohen, M, Harvey, C, Galletly, C, Stain, HJ, Neil, AL, McGorry, P, Hocking, B, Shah, S, Saw, S (2012). People living with psychotic illness in 2010: The second Australian national survey of psychosis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 46, 735752.
Morrison, G, Sharkey, V, Allardyce, J, Kelly, RC, McCreadie, RG (2000). Nithsdale schizophrenia surveys 21: a longitudinal study of National Adult Reading Test stability. Psychological Medicine 30, 717720.
Nelson, HE, Willison, J (1991). National Adult Reading Test (NART): Test Manual, 2nd edn. NFER Nelson: Windsor, UK.
Nielsen, RE, Uggerby, AS, Jensen, SOW, McGrath, JJ (2013). Increasing mortality gap for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia over the last three decades – a Danish nationwide study from 1980 to 2010. Schizophrenia Research 146, 2227.
Panza, F, Frisardi, V, Capurso, C, Imbimbo, BP, Vendemiale, G, Santamato, A, D'Onofrio, G, Seripa, D, Sancarlo, D, Pilotto, A, Solfrizzi, V (2010). Metabolic syndrome and cognitive impairment: current epidemiology and possible underlying mechanisms. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 21, 691724.
Perälä, J, Suvisaari, J, Saarni, S, Kuoppasalmi, K, Isometsä, E, Pirkola, S, Partonen, T, Tuulio-Henriksson, A, Hintikka, J, Kieseppä, T, Härkänen, T, Koskinen, S, Lönnqvist, J (2007). Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 1928.
Pickles, A, Dunn, G, Vázquez-Barquero, JL (1995). Screening for stratification in two-phase (‘two-stage’) epidemiological surveys. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 4, 7389.
Randolph, C (1998). Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): Test Manual. Harcourt Brace and Company: San Antonio.
Reichenberg, A, Weiser, M, Rapp, MA, Rabinowitz, J, Caspi, A, Schmeidler, J, Knobler, HY, Lubin, G, Nahon, D, Harvey, PD, Davidson, M (2005). Elaboration on premorbid intellectual performance in schizophrenia: premorbid intellectual decline and risk for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 12971304.
Saha, S, Chant, D, McGrath, J (2007). A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the differential mortality gap worsening over time? Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 11231131.
Saha, S, Chant, DC, Welham, JL, McGrath, J (2005). A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia. PLoS Medicine 2, e141.
Smith, D, Roberts, S, Brewer, W, Pantelis, C (1998). Test–retest reliability of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) as an estimate of premorbid IQ in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 3, 7180.
Tirupati, S, Chua, L-E (2007). Obesity and metabolic syndrome in a psychiatric rehabilitation service. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 41, 606610.
Verhaeghe, N, De Maeseneer, J, Maes, L, Van Heeringen, C, Annemans, L (2011). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on physical activity and eating habits in persons with severe mental disorders: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 8, 28.
Vos, T, Flaxman, AD, Naghavi, M, Lozano, R, Michaud, C, Ezzati, M, Shibuya, K, Salomon, JA, Abdalla, S, Aboyans, V, Abraham, J, Ackerman, I, Aggarwal, R, Ahn, SY, Ali, MK, Alvarado, M, Anderson, HR, Anderson, LM, Andrews, KG, Atkinson, C, Baddour, LM, Bahalim, AN, Barker-Collo, S, Barrero, LH, Bartels, DH, Basáñez, M-G, Baxter, A, Bell, ML, Benjamin, EJ, Bennett, D, Bernabé, E, Bhalla, K, Bhandari, B, Bikbov, B, Bin Abdulhak, A, Birbeck, G, Black, JA, Blencowe, H, Blore, JD, Blyth, F, Bolliger, I, Bonaventure, A, Boufous, S, Bourne, R, Boussinesq, M, Braithwaite, T, Brayne, C, Bridgett, L, Brooker, S, Brooks, P, Brugha, TS, Bryan-Hancock, C, Bucello, C, Buchbinder, R, Buckle, G, Budke, CM, Burch, M, Burney, P, Burstein, R, Calabria, B, Campbell, B, Canter, CE, Carabin, H, Carapetis, J, Carmona, L, Cella, C, Charlson, F, Chen, H, Cheng, AT-A, Chou, D, Chugh, SS, Coffeng, LE, Colan, SD, Colquhoun, S, Colson, KE, Condon, J, Connor, MD, Cooper, LT, Corriere, M, Cortinovis, M, Courville de Vaccaro, KC, Couser, W, Cowie, BC, Criqui, MH, Cross, M, Dabhadkar, KC, Dahiya, M, Dahodwala, N, Damsere-Derry, J, Danaei, G, Davis, A, De Leo, D, Degenhardt, L, Dellavalle, R, Delossantos, A, Denenberg, J, Derrett, S, Des Jarlais, DC, Dharmaratne, SD, Dherani, M, Diaz-Torne, C, Dolk, H, Dorsey, ER, Driscoll, T, Duber, H, Ebel, B, Edmond, K, Elbaz, A, Eltahir Ali, S, Erskine, H, Erwin, PJ, Espindola, P, Ewoigbokhan, SE, Farzadfar, F, Feigin, V, Felson, DT, Ferrari, A, Ferri, CP, Fèvre, EM, Finucane, MM, Flaxman, S, Flood, L, Foreman, K, Forouzanfar, MH, Fowkes, FGR, Franklin, R, Fransen, M, Freeman, MK, Gabbe, BJ, Gabriel, SE, Gakidou, E, Ganatra, HA, Garcia, B, Gaspari, F, Gillum, RF, Gmel, G, Gosselin, R, Grainger, R, Groeger, J, Guillemin, F, Gunnell, D, Gupta, R, Haagsma, J, Hagan, H, Halasa, YA, Hall, W, Haring, D, Haro, JM, Harrison, JE, Havmoeller, R, Hay, RJ, Higashi, H, Hill, C, Hoen, B, Hoffman, H, Hotez, PJ, Hoy, D, Huang, JJ, Ibeanusi, SE, Jacobsen, KH, James, SL, Jarvis, D, Jasrasaria, R, Jayaraman, S, Johns, N, Jonas, JB, Karthikeyan, G, Kassebaum, N, Kawakami, N, Keren, A, Khoo, J-P, King, CH, Knowlton, LM, Kobusingye, O, Koranteng, A, Krishnamurthi, R, Lalloo, R, Laslett, LL, Lathlean, T, Leasher, JL, Lee, YY, Leigh, J, Lim, SS, Limb, E, Lin, JK, Lipnick, M, Lipshultz, SE, Liu, W, Loane, M, Ohno, SL, Lyons, R, Ma, J, Mabweijano, J, MacIntyre, MF, Malekzadeh, R, Mallinger, L, Manivannan, S, Marcenes, W, March, L, Margolis, DJ, Marks, GB, Marks, R, Matsumori, A, Matzopoulos, R, Mayosi, BM, McAnulty, JH, McDermott, MM, McGill, N, McGrath, J, Medina-Mora, ME, Meltzer, M, Mensah, GA, Merriman, TR, Meyer, A-C, Miglioli, V, Miller, M, Miller, TR, Mitchell, PB, Mocumbi, AO, Moffitt, TE, Mokdad, AA, Monasta, L, Montico, M, Moradi-Lakeh, M, Moran, A, Morawska, L, Mori, R, Murdoch, ME, Mwaniki, MK, Naidoo, K, Nair, MN, Naldi, L, Narayan, KMV, Nelson, PK, Nelson, RG, Nevitt, MC, Newton, CR, Nolte, S, Norman, P, Norman, R, O'Donnell, M, O'Hanlon, S, Olives, C, Omer, SB, Ortblad, K, Osborne, R, Ozgediz, D, Page, A, Pahari, B, Pandian, J, Panozo Rivero, A, Patten, SB, Pearce, N, Padilla, RP, Perez-Ruiz, F, Perico, N, Pesudovs, K, Phillips, D, Phillips, MR, Pierce, K, Pion, S, Polanczyk, GV, Polinder, S, Pope, CA, Popova, S, Porrini, E, Pourmalek, F, Prince, M, Pullan, RL, Ramaiah, KD, Ranganathan, D, Razavi, H, Regan, M, Rehm, JT, Rein, DB, Remuzzi, G, Richardson, K, Rivara, FP, Roberts, T, Robinson, C, Rodriguez De Leòn, F, Ronfani, L, Room, R, Rosenfeld, LC, Rushton, L, Sacco, RL, Saha, S, Sampson, U, Sanchez-Riera, L, Sanman, E, Schwebel, DC, Scott, JG, Segui-Gomez, M, Shahraz, S, Shepard, DS, Shin, H, Shivakoti, R, Singh, D, Singh, GM, Singh, JA, Singleton, J, Sleet, DA, Sliwa, K, Smith, E, Smith, JL, Stapelberg, NJC, Steer, A, Steiner, T, Stolk, WA, Stovner, LJ, Sudfeld, C, Syed, S, Tamburlini, G, Tavakkoli, M, Taylor, HR, Taylor, JA, Taylor, WJ, Thomas, B, Thomson, WM, Thurston, GD, Tleyjeh, IM, Tonelli, M, Towbin, JA, Truelsen, T, Tsilimbaris, MK, Ubeda, C, Undurraga, EA, van der Werf, MJ, van Os, J, Vavilala, MS, Venketasubramanian, N, Wang, M, Wang, W, Watt, K, Weatherall, DJ, Weinstock, MA, Weintraub, R, Weisskopf, MG, Weissman, MM, White, RA, Whiteford, H, Wiersma, ST, Wilkinson, JD, Williams, HC, Williams, SRM, Witt, E, Wolfe, F, Woolf, AD, Wulf, S, Yeh, P-H, Zaidi, AKM, Zheng, Z-J, Zonies, D, Lopez, AD, Murray, CJL (2012). Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380, 21632196.
Wildgust, HJ, Beary, M (2010). Review: Are there modifiable risk factors which will reduce the excess mortality in schizophrenia? Journal of Psychopharmacology 24, 3750.
Wilk, CM, Gold, JM, Bartko, JJ, Dickerson, F, Fenton, WS, Knable, M, Randolph, C, Buchanan, RW (2002). Test–retest stability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 838844.
Wing, JK, Babor, T, Brugha, T, Burke, J, Cooper, JE, Giel, R, Jablensky, A, Regier, D, Sartorius, N (1990). SCAN: Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry 47, 589593.
Woodberry, KA, Giuliano, AJ, Seidman, LJ (2008). Premorbid IQ in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 579587.
World Health Organization (2009). Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. World Health Organization: Geneva.
World Health Organization (2000). Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. World Health Organization: Geneva.
Wykes, T, Huddy, V, Cellard, C, McGurk, SR, Czobor, P (2011). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 472485.
Zammit, S, Allebeck, P, David, AS, Dalman, C, Hemmingsson, T, Lundberg, I, Lewis, G (2004). A longitudinal study of premorbid IQ score and risk of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, and other nonaffective psychoses. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 354360.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Morgan et al. Supplementary Material

 Word (625 KB)
625 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed