APA (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn revised. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
Chen, R, Copeland, JR, Wei, L (1999). A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies in depression of older people in the People's Republic of China. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 14, 821–830.
Chen, R, Hu, Z, Qin, X, Xu, X, Copeland, JR (2004). A community-based study of depression in older people in Hefei, China: the GMS-AGECAT prevalence, case validation and socio-economic correlates. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 19, 407–413.
Chiu, HFK, Yip, PS, Chi, I, Chan, S, Tsoh, J, Kwan, CW (2004). Elderly suicide in Hong Kong: a case-controlled psychological autopsy study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 109, 299–305.
Chong, MY, Tsang, HY, Chen, CS, Tang, TC, Chen, CC, Yeh, TL, Lee, YH, Lo, HY (2001). Community study of depression in old age in Taiwan: prevalence, life events and socio-demographic correlates. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, 29–35.
Cohen, J (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn. Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.
Cole, MG, Bellavance, F, Mansour, A (1999). Prognosis of depression in elderly community and primary care populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 156, 1182–1189.
Cole, MG, Dendukuri, N (2003). Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1147–1156.
Cole, MG, Yaffe, MJ (1996). Pathway to psychiatric care of the elderly with depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11, 157–161.
Geerlings, SW, Beekman, AT, Deeg, DJ, Van Tilburg, W (2000). Physical health and the onset and persistence of depression in older adults: an eight-wave prospective community-based study. Psychological Medicine 30, 369–380.
Heikkinen, RL, Kauppinen, M (2004). Depressive symptoms in late life: a 10-year follow-up. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 38, 239–250.
Jiang, YH, Zhang, YJ, Guo, JE, Fang, RL (2005). Psycho-status and intervention needs of dependents of depressed patients with dementia [in Chinese]. Medical Journal of Chinese People's Health 17, 533–534.
Jongenelis, K, Pot, AM, Eisses, AM, Beekman, AT, Kluiter, H, Ribbe, MW (2004). Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients: the AGED study. Journal of Affective Disorders 83, 135–142.
Katon, W, von Korff, M, Lin, E, Bush, T, Ormel, J (1992). Adequacy and duration of antidepressant treatment in primary care. Medical Care 30, 67–76.
Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, Jin, R, Merikangas, KR, Walters, EE (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 593–602.
Kleinman, A (1986). Social Origins of Distress and Disease: Neurasthenia, Depression, and Pain in Modern China. Yale University Press: New Haven.
Kua, EH (1992). A community study of mental disorders in elderly Singaporean Chinese using the GMS-AGECAT package. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 26, 502–506.
Lee, S, Tsang, A, Zhang, MY, Huang, YQ, He, YL, Liu, ZR, Shen, YC, Kessler, RC (2007). Lifetime prevalence and inter-cohort variation in DSM-IV disorders in metropolitan China. Psychological Medicine 37, 61–71.
Li, SR, Chen, CH, Zhang, WX, Jia, XJ, Liu, M, Xu, L (1999). The prevalence of geriatric depression and dementia in the urban community in Beijing [in Chinese]. Chinese Mental Health Journal 13, 266–268.
Lin, Y (2006). Relative factors and preventive countermeasures of elderly depression in the community [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Gerontology 26, 1013–1014.
Ma, SS, Qin, X, Chen, RL, Hu, Z (2006). Investigation of the incidence of geriatric depression in a rural community of Anhui province [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Public Health 22, 385–386.
National Bureau of Statistics of China (2003). China Statistical Yearbook 2003. China Statistics Press: Beijing, China.
O'Brien, B, Goeree, R, Streiner, D (1994). Prevalence of migraine headache in Canada: a population-based survey. International Journal of Epidemiology 23, 1020–1026.
Phillips, MR, Pearson, V (1994). Future opportunities and challenges for the development of psychiatric rehabilitation in China. British Journal of Psychiatry 165 (Suppl. 24), 128–142.
Phillips, MR, Shen, Q, Liu, X, Pritzker, S, Streiner, D, Conner, K, Yang, G (2007). Assessing depressive symptoms in persons who die of suicide in mainland China. Journal of Affective Disorders 98, 73–82.
Robins, LN, Wing, J, Wittchen, HU, Helzer, JE, Babor, TF, Burke, J, Farmer, A, Jablenski, A, Pickens, R, Regier, DA, Sartorius, N, Towle, LH (1988). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Archives of General Psychiatry 45, 1069–1077.
Shen, YC, Zhang, MY, Huang, YQ, He, YL, Liu, ZR, Cheng, H, Tsang, A, Lee, S, Kessler, RC (2006). Twelve-month prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in metropolitan China. Psychological Medicine 36, 257–267.
Steffens, DC, Skoog, I, Norton, MC, Hart, AD, Tschanz, JT, Plassman, BL (2000). Prevalence of depression and its treatment in an elderly population: the Cache County study. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 601–607.
Tang, MN, Liu, XH, Han, HY, Tang, MM, Wang, YF, Zhang, LZ (2001). Prevalence of depressive disorders among residents aged 55 or above in the Chengdu area [in Chinese]. Chinese Mental Health Journal 15, 103–106.
Twelve-Region Psychiatric Epidemiological Study Work Group (1986). A national 12-region psychiatric epidemiological study: methodology and results [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Psychiatry 19, 65–69.
Unutzer, J, Patrick, DL, Simon, G, Grembowski, D, Walker, E, Rutter, C (1997). Depressive symptoms and the cost of health services in HMO patients aged 65 years and older. A 4-year prospective study. Journal of the American Medical Association 277, 1618–1623.
Wang, JR, Wang, DP, Shen, YC, Zhang, WX, Li, SR, Chen, CH (1998). Epidemiological survey of affective disorder in seven areas of China [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Psychiatry 5, 75–77.
Wetterling, T, Junghanns, K (2004). Affective disorders in older inpatients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 19, 487–492.
Woo, J, Ho, SC, Lau, J, Yuen, YK, Chiu, H, Lee, HC, Chi, I (1994). The prevalence of depressive symptoms and predisposing factors in an elderly Chinese population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 89, 8–13.
Yan, F, Li, SR (2000). Incidence of geriatric depression and follow-up [in Chinese]. Chinese Mental Health Journal 14, 392–394.
Zhang, HX, Ji, JL (2004). The medication compliance of patients with depression [in Chinese]. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry 16, 356–358.
Zhang, WF (1999). The Ageing of Population and the Policies of China. China National Committee on Ageing: Beijing.
Zou, YZ, She, L, Shen, YC, Wang, YF, Feng, F (1995). The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview [in Chinese]. Journal of International Psychiatry 3, 147–149.