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Present status of the concept of drug dependence

  • Abraham Wikler (a1)

Synopsis

At least for heuristic purposes, certain operationally definable concepts of conditioning theory can serve as a framework for research on ‘drug dependence’ both in man and in animals: primary and secondary pharmacological reinforcement, either of which may be direct (‘psychic’) or indirect (‘physical’); and social reinforcement (‘cultural’).

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Cameron, D. C. (1971). Abuse of alcohol and drugs: concepts and planning. WHO Chronicle, 25, 816.
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Kumar, R., Steinberg, H., and Stolerman, I. P. (1969). How rats can become dependent on morphine in the course of relieving another need, pp. 209220. In Scientific Basis of Drug Dependence (Biological Council Symposium). Edited by Steinberg, H.. Churchill: London.
Schuster, C. R., and Woods, J. H. (1968). The conditioned reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with morphine reinforcement. International Journal of Addictions, 3, 223230.
Stolerman, I. P., and Kumar, R. (1970). Preferences for morphine in rats: Validation of an experimental model of dependence. Psychopharmacologia, 17, 137150.
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Wikler, A. (1970). Some implications of conditioning theory for problems of drug abuse, pp. 104113. In Drug Abuse. Data and Debate. Edited by Blachly, P. H.. Thomas: Springfield.
Wikler, A., Pescor, F. T., Miller, D., and Norrell, H. (1971). Persistent potency of a secondary (conditioned) reinforcer following withdrawal of morphine from physically dependent rats. Psychopharmacologia, 20, 103117.

Present status of the concept of drug dependence

  • Abraham Wikler (a1)

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