Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illness

  • Lauren M. Hickling (a1) (a2), Rocio Perez-Iglesias (a1) (a3) (a4), Ann McNeill (a5), Lynne Dawkins (a6), John Moxham (a7), Tamatha Ruffell (a1), Kyra-Verena Sendt (a1) and Philip McGuire (a1)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Abstract

Background

Smoking is the largest single contributor to poor physical health and increased mortality in people with serious mental illnesses. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a harm reduction intervention in this population.

Method

Fifty tobacco smokers with a psychotic disorder were enrolled onto a 24-week pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02212041) investigating the efficacy of a 6-week free e-cigarette intervention to reduce smoking. Cigarette and e-cigarette use was self-reported at weekly visits, and verified using carbon monoxide tests. Psychopathology, e-cigarette acceptability and adverse effects were assessed using standardised scales.

Results

There was a significant (⩾50%) reduction in cigarettes consumed per day between baseline and week 6 [F(2.596,116.800) = 25.878, p < 0.001], and e-cigarette use was stable during this period [F(2.932,46.504) = 2.023, p = 0.115]. These changes were verified by significant carbon monoxide reductions between these time points [F(3.335,126.633) = 5.063, p = 0.002].

Conclusions

The provision of e-cigarettes is a potentially useful harm reduction intervention in smokers with a psychotic disorder.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illness
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illness
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illness
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Lauren M. Hickling, E-mail: lauren.hickling@kcl.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Addington, D, Addington, J and Maticka-Tyndale, E (1993) Assessing depression in schizophrenia: the Calgary Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 3944.
Blank, MD, Sams, C, Weaver, MF and Eissenberg, TE (2008) Nicotine delivery, cardiovascular profile, and subjective effects of an oral tobacco product for smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10, 417421.
Brown, RA, Burgess, ES, Sales, SD, Whiteley, JA, Evans, DM and Miller, IW (1998) Reliability and validity of a smoking timeline follow-back interview. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours 12, 101112.
Browne, RH (1995) On the use of a pilot sample for sample size determination. Statistics in Medicine 14, 19331940.
Bullen, C, Howe, C, Laugesen, M, McRobbie, H, Parag, V, Williman, J and Walker, N (2013) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 382, 16291637.
Bullen, C, McRobbie, H, Thornley, S, Glover, M, Lin, R and Laugesen, M (2010) Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (E cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial. Tobacco Control 19, 98103.
Callaghan, RC, Veldhuizen, S, Jeysingh, T, Orlan, C, Graham, C, Kakouris, G, Remington, G and Gatley, J (2014) Patterns of tobacco-related mortality among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research 48, 102110.
Caponnetto, P, Auditore, R, Russo, C, Cappello, G and Polosa, R (2013) Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10, 446461.
Chang, AY and Barry, M (2015) The global health implications of e-cigarettes. The Journal of the American Medical Association 314, 663664.
Comstock, GW, Tockman, MS, Helsing, KJ and Hennesy, KM (1979) Standardized respiratory questionnaires: comparison of the old with the new. American Review of Respiratory Disease 119, 4553.
Copeland, AL, Brandon, TH and Quinn, EP (1995) The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult: measurement of smoking outcome expectancies of experienced smokers. Psychological Assessment 7, 484494.
De Leon, J and Diaz, FJ (2005) A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviours. Schizophrenia Research 76, 135157.
Etter, JF and Bullen, C (2011 a) Saliva cotinine levels in users of electronic cigarettes. European Respiratory Journal 38, 12191220.
Etter, JF and Bullen, C (2011 b) Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy. Addiction 106, 20172028.
Evins, AE, Cather, C, Rigotti, NA, Freudenreich, O, Henderson, DC, Olm-Shipman, CM and Goff, DC (2004) Two-year follow-up of a smoking cessation trial in patients with schizophrenia: increased rates of smoking cessation and reduction. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65, 307311.
Farsalinos, KE, Spyrou, A, Tsimopoulou, K, Stefopoulos, C, Romagna, G and Voudris, V (2015) Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices. Scientific Reports 4, 4133.
Gurpegui, M, Martínez-Ortega, JM, Aguilar, MC, Diaz, FJ, Quintana, HM and De Leon, J (2005) Smoking initiation and schizophrenia: a replication study in a Spanish sample. Schizophrenia Research 76, 113118.
Hartmann-Boyce, J, Begh, R and Aveyard, P (2018) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. British Medical Journal 360, J5543.
Hartmann-Boyce, J, McRobbie, H, Bullen, C, Begh, R, Stead, LF and Hajek, P (2016) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9, CD010216.
Hitchman, SC, Brose, LS, Brown, J, Robson, D and McNeill, A (2015) Associations between e-cigarette type, frequency of use, and quitting smoking: findings from a longitudinal online panel survey in Great Britain. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 17, 11871194.
Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A and Opler, LA (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13, 261276.
Kotz, D, Brown, J and West, R (2013) Predictive validity of the Motivation To Stop Scale (MTSS): a single-item measure of motivation to stop smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 128, 1519.
O'Brien, B, Knight-West, O, Walker, N, Parag, V and Bullen, C (2015) E-cigarettes versus NRT for smoking reduction or cessation in people with mental illness: secondary analysis of data from the ASCEND trial. Tobacco Induced Diseases 13, 5. doi: 10.1186/s12971-015-0030-2.
Payne, TJ (2016) Smoking harm reduction. American Journal of Public Health 106, e2.
Pratt, SI, Sargent, J, Daniels, L, Santos, MM and Brunette, M (2016) Appeal of electronic cigarettes in smokers with serious mental illness. Addictive Behaviours 59, 3034.
Prochaska, JJ (2011) Smoking and mental illness – breaking the link. New England Journal of Medicine 365, 196198.
Prochaska, JJ and Grana, RA (2014) E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness. Public Library of Science One 9, e113013.
Public Health England (2015) E-cigarettes: an evidence update. A report commissioned by Public Health About Public Health England. Available at http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/454516/Ecigarettes_an_evidence_update_A_report_commissioned_by_Public_Health_England.pdf.
Public Health England (2018) Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018. A report commissioned by Public Health England. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/684963/Evidence_review_of_e-cigarettes_and_heated_tobacco_products_2018.pdf.
Rash, CJ and Copeland, AL (2008) The Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A): development of a short form of the SCQ-A. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10, 16331643.
Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Psychiatrists (2013) Smoking and Mental Health. Available at http://www.academia.edu/3215351/Royal_College_of_Physicians_Royal_College_of_Psychiatrists_2013_._Smoking_and_mental_health._London_RCP.
Shahab, L, Goniewicz, ML, Blount, BC, Brown, J, McNeill, A, Udeni Alwis, K, Feng, J, Wang, L and West, R (2017) Nicotine, carcinogen, and toxin exposure in long-term e-cigarette and nicotine replacement therapy users. Annals of Internal Medicine 166, 390400.
Strasser, AA, Lerman, C, Sanborn, PM, Pickworth, WB and Feldman, EA (2007) New lower nicotine cigarettes can produce compensatory smoking and increased carbon monoxide exposure. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 86, 294300.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Hickling et al. supplementary material
Hickling et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (24 KB)
24 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed