Skip to main content Accessibility help

Neuropsychological and P300 abnormalities in schizophrenics and their relatives

  • H. Roxborough (a1), W. J. Muir (a1), D. H. R. Blackwood (a1), M. T. Walker (a1) and I. M. Blackburn (a1)...


Schizophrenic subjects (N = 30) performed less well than controls (N = 30) on neuropsychological tests sensitive to frontal and temporal lobe impairment and showed prolonged latency of the P300 event-related potential. Relatives of schizophrenic probands were also tested. Relatives with an abnormal P300 had a similar range of neuropsychological deficits as were found in the schizophrenic group and relatives with a normal P300 response performed as well as the normal control group. The results suggest that neurophysiological and neuropsychological testing of relatives may help to clarify the mode of inheritance of schizophrenia in some families.


Corresponding author

1Address for correspondence: Dr H. Roxborough, University Department of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Morningside Park, Edinburgh EH10 5HF.


Hide All
American Psychiatric Association Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn – Revised. American Psychiatric Association; Washington, DC.
Benton, A. L. (1976). Constructional apraxia and the minor hemisphere. Confinia Neurologica 29, 116.
Besson, J. A. O., Corrigan, F. M., Cherryman, G. R. & Smith, F. W. (1987). Nuclear magnetic resonance brain imaging in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 150, 161163.
Blackwood, D. H. R., Whalley, L. J., Christie, J. E., Blackburn, I. M., St Clair, D. M. & McInnes, A. (1987). Changes in auditory P3 event-related potential in schizophrenia and depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 150, 154160.
Blackwood, D. H. R., St Clair, D. M., Muir, W. J., Oliver, C. J. & Dickens, P. (1988). The development of Alzheimer's disease in Down's syndrome assessed by auditory event-related potentials. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research 32, 439453.
Blackwood, D. H. R., St Clair, D. M., Muir, W. J. & Duffy, J. C. (1991 a). Auditory P300 and eye tracking dysfunction in schizophrenic pedigrees. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 899909.
Blackwood, D. H. R., Young, A. H., McQueen, J. K., Martin, M. J., Roxborough, H. M., Muir, W. J., St Clair, D. M. & Kean, D. M. (1991 b). Magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia: altered brain morphology associated with P300 abnormality and eye tracking dysfunction. Biological Psychiatry 30, 753769.
Bogerts, B., Meertz, E. & Schonfeldt-Bausch, R. (1985). Basal ganglia and limbic system pathology in schizophrenia: a morphometric study. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 784791.
Buchsbaum, M. S., Ingvar, D. H., Kessler, R., Waters, R. N., Cappelletti, J., Van Kammen, D. P., King, A. C., Johnson, J. L., Manning, R. G., Flynn, R. W., Mann, L. S., Bunney, W. E. & Sokoloff, L. (1982). Cerebral glucography with positron tomography. Use in normal subjects and in patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 251259.
Corsi, P. M. (1967). Effects of contralateral noise upon the perception and immediate recall of monaurally-presented verbal material. Ph.D. thesis, University of Montreal.
De Lisi, L. E., Holcomb, H. H., Cohen, R. M., Pickar, D., Carpenter, W., Morihisa, J. M., King, A. C., Kessler, R. & Buchsbaum, M. S. (1985). Positron emission tomography in schizophrenic patients with and without neuroleptic medication. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 5, 201206.
Ebmeier, K. P., Mackenzie, A. R., Potter, D. D. & Salzen, E. A. (1989). Late positive event-related potentials in schizophrenia. In Developments in Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (ed. Crawford, J. and Parker, D.), pp. 127136. Plenum Press: New York.
Endicott, J. & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 35, 837844.
Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. & Cornblatt, B. (1978). Attentional measures in a study of children at high risk for schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 14, 9398.
Falkai, P. & Bogerts, B. (1986). Cell-loss in the hippocampus of schizophrenics. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Science 236, 154161.
Farkas, T., Wolf, A. P., Jaeger, J., Brodie, J., Christman, D. R. & Fowler, J. S. (1984). Regional brain glucose metabolism in chronic schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 293300.
Flor-Henry, P. & Yeudall, L. T. (1979). Neuropsychological investigation of schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis. In Hemisphere Asymmetries of Function in Psychopathology (ed. Gruzelier, J. and Flor-Henry, P.), pp. 341363. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press: Amsterdam.
Frith, C. D. & Done, D. J. (1988). Towards a neuropsychology of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 153, 437443.
Goodin, D. S., Squires, K. C. & Starr, A. (1978). Long latency event-related components of the auditory evoked potential in dementia. Brain 101, 635648.
Gordon, E., Kraiuhin, C., Harris, A., Meares, R. & Howson, A. (1986). The differential diagnosis of dementia using P300 latency. Biological Psychiatry 21, 11231132.
Gruzelier, J., Seymour, K., Wilson, C., Joley, A. & Hirsch, S. (1988). Impairments on neuropsychologic tests of temporo-hippocampal and fronto-hippocampal functions and word fluency in remitting schizophrenia and affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 45, 623629.
Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 23, 5961.
Johnstone, E. C., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., Husband, J. & Kreel, L. (1976). Cerebral ventricular enlargement and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet ii, 924926.
Kolb, B. & Wishaw, I. Q. (1983). Performance of schizophrenic patients on tests sensitive to left or right frontal, temporal or parietal function in neurological patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorder 171, 435443.
Lewine, R. R. J. (1984). Stalking the schizophrenia marker: evience for a general vulnerability model of psychopathology. In Children at Risk for Schizophrenia (ed. Watt, N. F., Anthony, E. J., Wynne, L. C. and Rolf, J. E.), pp. 545550. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Lezak, M. D. (1975). Neuropsychological Assessment. Oxford University Press: New York.
Malenka, R. C., Angel, R. W., Hampton, B. & Berger, P. (1982). Impaired central error correcting behaviour in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 101107.
Milner, B. (1963). Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting. Archives of Neurology (Chicago) 9, 90100.
Milner, B. (1964). Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man. In The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behaviour (ed. Waren, J. O. N. and Akert, K.), pp. 313334. McGraw-Hill: New York.
Milner, B. (1970). Memory and the medial temporal regions of the brain. In Biology of Memory (ed. Pribram, K. H. and Broadbent, D. E.), pp. 2950. Academic Press: New York.
Milner, B. (1971). Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. British Medical Bulletin 27, 272277.
Milner, B. & Petrides, M. (1984). Behavioural effects of frontal lobe lesions in man. Trends in Neurosciences 7, 403407.
Neale, J. M., Winters, K. C. & Weintraub, S. (1984). Information processing deficits in children at high risk for schizophrenia. In Children at Risk for Schizophrenia (ed. Watt, N. F., Anthony, E. J., Wynne, L. C. and Rolf, J. E.), pp. 264278. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Newcombe, F. (1969). Missile Wounds of the Brain. Oxford University Press: London.
Nuechterlein, K. H. (1983). Signal detection in vigilance tasks and behavioural attributes among offspring of schizophrenic mothers and among hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 92, 428.
Orzack, M. & Kornetsky, C. (1966). Attention dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 14, 323326.
Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychiatric Reports 10, 799812.
Pfefferbaum, A., Wenegrat, B. G., Ford, J. M., Roth, W. T. & Kopell, B. S. (1984). Clinical application of the P3 component of event-related potentials. II. Dementia, depression and schizophrenia. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 50, 104124.
Reveley, M. A. (1985). CT scans in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 146, 367371.
Robinson, A. L., Heaton, R. K., Lehman, R. A. W. & Stilson, D. W. (1980). The utility of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in detecting and localizing frontal lobe lesions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 48, 605614.
Romani, S., Merello, S., Gozzoii, L., Zerbi, F., Grassi, H. & Cosi, V. (1987). P300 and CT scan in patients with chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 151, 506513.
Rutschmann, J., Cornblatt, G. & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (1977). Sustained attention in children at risk for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 34, 571575.
Sagawa, K., Kawakatsu, S., Shibuya, I., Oiji, A., Morinobu, S., Komantani, A., Yazaki, M. & Totsuka, S. (1990). Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow with performance on neuropsychological tests in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Research 3, 241246.
Smith, R. C., Baumgartner, R. & Calderon, M. (1987). Magnetic resonance imaging studies of the brains of schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Research 20, 3346.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978). Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders, 3rd edn.New York State Psychiatric Institution Biometrics Research: New York.
SPSS (1986). SPSS-X. SPSS Inc.: 444 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
St Clair, D. M., Blackwood, D. H. R., Muir, W. J., Baillie, D., Hubbard, A. & Evans, H. J. (1989 a). No linkage of chromosome 5q11–13 markers to schizophrenia in Scottish families. Nature 339, 305309.
St Clair, D. M., Blackwood, D. H. R. & Muir, W. J. (1989 b). P300 abnormality in schizophrenic subtypes. Journal of Psychiatric Research 23, 4955.
Taylor, M. A. & Abrams, R. A. (1984). Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 141, 186201.
Toglia, M. P. & Battig, W. F. (1978). Handbook of Semantic Word Nouns. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey.
Walker, E. (1981). Attentional and neuromotor functions of schizophrenics, schizoaffectives and patients with other affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 38, 13551358.
Walker, E. & Shaye, J. (1982). Familial schizophrenia. A prediction of neuromotor and attentional abnormalities in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 11531156.
Weinberger, D., Wagner, R. & Wyatt, R. (1983). Neuropathological studies of schizophrenia: a selective review. Schizophrenia Bulletin 9, 193212.
Weinberger, D. R., Berman, K. F. & Zec, R. F. (1986). Physiologic dysfunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophenia. II. Regional cerebral blood flow evidence. Archives of General Psychiatry 43, 114124.

Neuropsychological and P300 abnormalities in schizophrenics and their relatives

  • H. Roxborough (a1), W. J. Muir (a1), D. H. R. Blackwood (a1), M. T. Walker (a1) and I. M. Blackburn (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed