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The neuropsychiatric implications of low level exposure to lead1

  • Herbert L. Needleman
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Burde, B. de la & Choate, M. S. (1975). Early asymptomatic lead exposure and development at school age. Journal of Pediatrics 87, 638664.
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Hebel, J. R., Kinch, D. & Armstrong, E. (1976). Mental capacity of children exposed to lead pollution. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 30, 170174.
Hernberg, S. (1976). Biochemical subclinical and clinical responses to lead and their relation to different exposure levels, as indicated by the concentration of lead in blood. In Effects and Dose–Response Relationships of Toxic Metals (ed. Nordberg, G. F.), pp. 404415. Elsevier: Amsterdam.
Landrigan, P., Whitworth, R. H., Baloh, R. W., Staehling, N. W., Barthel, W. F. & Rosenblum, B. F. (1975). Neuropsychological dysfunction in children with chronic low-level lead absorbtion. Lancet i, 708712.
Lansdown, R. G., Clayton, B. E., Graham, P. J., Shepherd, J., Delves, H. T. & Turner, W. C. (1974). Blood lead level behavior and intelligence: a population study. Lancet i, 538541.
Moore, M. R. & Graham, D. J. M. (1980). Monopyrroles in porphyria, psychosis and lead exposure. International Journal of Biochemistry 12, 827832.
Nathanson, J. & Bloom, F. E. (1975). Lead-induced inhibition of brain adenyl cyclase. Nature 255, 419420.
Needleman, H. L. & Bellinger, D. (1981). The epidemiology of low level lead exposure. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 20, 496512.
Needleman, H. L. & Landrigan, P. (1981). The health effects of low level exposure to lead. Annual Review of Public Health 2, 277298.
Needleman, H. L., Gunnoe, C., Leviton, A., Reed, R., Peresie, H., Maher, C. & Barrett, P. (1979). Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. New England Journal of Medicine 300, 689695.
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Rice, D. & Willes, R. J. (1979). Neonatal low-level lead exposure in monkeys (macacca fasiculoaris): effect on two-choice non-spatial form discrimination. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 2, 11951203.
Winneke, G., Brochhaus, A., Kramer, U., Ewen, U., Kujanek, G., Lechner, H. & Janke, W. (1981). Neuropsychological comparison of children with different tooth lead levels. Preliminary report.In Proceedings of International Conference, Heavy Metals in the Environment, pp. 553556. WHO: Amsterdam. CEP Consultants: Edinburgh.
Yule, W., Lansdown, R., Miller, I. B. & Urbanowicz, M. (1981). The relationships between blood lead concentrations, intelligence and attainment in a school population: a pilot study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 23, 567576.

The neuropsychiatric implications of low level exposure to lead1

  • Herbert L. Needleman

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