Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Joint factorial structure of psychopathology and personality

  • Tom Rosenström (a1) (a2), Line C. Gjerde (a1) (a3), Robert F. Krueger (a4), Steven H. Aggen (a5), Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski (a1) (a3), Nathan A. Gillespie (a5), Kenneth S. Kendler (a5) (a6) (a7), Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud (a1) (a8), Fartein Ask Torvik (a1) (a3) and Eivind Ystrom (a1) (a3) (a9)...

Abstract

Background

Normative and pathological personality traits have rarely been integrated into a joint large-scale structural analysis with psychiatric disorders, although a recent study suggested they entail a common individual differences continuum.

Methods

We explored the joint factor structure of 11 psychiatric disorders, five personality-disorder trait domains (DSM-5 Section III), and five normative personality trait domains (the ‘Big Five’) in a population-based sample of 2796 Norwegian twins, aged 19‒46.

Results

Three factors could be interpreted: (i) a general risk factor for all psychopathology, (ii) a risk factor specific to internalizing disorders and traits, and (iii) a risk factor specific to externalizing disorders and traits. Heritability estimates for the three risk factor scores were 48% (95% CI 41‒54%), 35% (CI 28‒42%), and 37% (CI 31‒44%), respectively. All 11 disorders had uniform loadings on the general factor (congruence coefficient of 0.991 with uniformity). Ignoring sign and excluding the openness trait, this uniformity of factor loadings held for all the personality trait domains and all disorders (congruence 0.983).

Conclusions

Based on our findings, future research should investigate joint etiologic and transdiagnostic models for normative and pathological personality and other psychopathology.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Tom Rosenström, E-mail: tom.rosenstrom@helsinki.fi

Footnotes

Hide All

Joint senior authors.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Abdi, H (2007). RV coefficient and congruence coefficient. In Salkind NJ (ed.), Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 849853.
Achenbach, TM (1966) The classification of children's psychiatric symptoms: a factor-analytic study. Psychological Monographs 80, 137.
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edn. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Asparouhov, T (2005) Sampling weights in latent variable modeling. Structural Equation Modeling 12, 411434.
Asparouhov, T and Muthén, B (2009) Exploratory structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling 16, 397438.
Bonifay, W and Cai, L (2017) On the complexity of item response theory models. Multivariate Behavioral Research 52, 465484.
Borsboom, D (2017) A network theory of mental disorders. World Psychiatry 2017, 513.
Brainstorm Consortium (2018) Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain. Science 360, eaap8757.
Carver, CS, Johnson, SL and Timpano, KR (2017) Toward a functional view of the p factor in psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science 5, 880889.
Caspi, A and Moffitt, TE (2018) All for one and one for all: mental disorders in one dimension. The American Journal of Psychiatry 175, 831844.
Caspi, A, Houts, RM, Belsky, DW, Goldman-Mellor, SJ, Harrington, H, Israel, S, Meier, MH, Ramrakha, S, Shalev, I, Poulton, R and Moffitt, TE (2014) The p factor: one general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science 2, 119137.
Cuthbert, BN (2014) The RDoC framework: facilitating transition from ICD/DSM to dimensional approaches that integrate neuroscience and psychopathology. World Psychiatry 13, 2835.
Czajkowski, N, Aggen, SH, Krueger, RF, Kendler, KS, Neale, MC, Knudsen, GP, Gillespie, NA, Røysamb, E, Tambs, K and Reichborn-Kjennerud, T (2018) A twin study of normative personality and DSM-IV personality disorder criterion counts: evidence for separate genetic influences. American Journal of Psychiatry 175, 649656.
de Jonge, P, Wardenaar, KJ, Lim, CCW, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Andrade, LH, Bunting, B, Chatterji, S, Ciutan, M, Gureje, O, Karam, EG, Lee, S, Medina-Mora, ME, Moskalewicz, J, Navarro-Mateu, F, Pennell, B-E, Piazza, M, Posada-Villa, J, Torres, Y, Kessler, RC and Scott, K (2017) The cross-national structure of mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine 48, 20732084.
Del Giudice, M (2014) An evolutionary life history framework for psychopathology. Psychological Inquiry 25, 261300.
Del Giudice, M (2016) The life history model of psychopathology explains the structure of psychiatric disorders and the emergence of the p factor: a simulation study. Clinical Psychological Science 4, 299311.
Drton, M (2009) Likelihood ratio tests and singularities. The Annals of Statistics 37, 9791012.
Eid, M, Geiser, C, Koch, T and Heene, M (2017) Anomalous results in G-factor models: explanations and alternatives. Psychological Methods 22, 541562.
Elliott, ML, Romer, A, Knodt, AR and Hariri, AR (2018) A connectome-wide functional signature of transdiagnostic risk for mental illness. Biological Psychiatry 84, 452459.
Enders, CK and Bandalos, DL (2001) The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling 8, 430457.
Falconer, DS (1965) The inheritance of liability to certain diseases, estimated from the incidence among relatives. Annals of Human Genetics 29, 5176.
Franić, S, Dolan, CV, Borsboom, D, Hudziak, JJ, van Beijsterveldt, CEM and Boomsma, DI (2013) Can genetics help psychometrics? Improving dimensionality assessment through genetic factor modeling. Psychological Methods 18, 406433.
Gandal, MJ, Haney, JR, Parikshak, NN, Leppa, V, Ramaswami, G, Hartl, C, Schork, AJ, Appadurai, V, Buil, A, Werge, TM, Liu, C, White, KP, Consortium, C, Consortium, P, Group iPSYCH-BW, Horvath, S and Geschwind, DH (2018) Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap. Science 359, 693697.
Garrido, LE, Abad, FJ and Ponsoda, V (2013) A new look at Horn's parallel analysis with ordinal variables. Psychological Methods 18, 454474.
Garrido, LE, Abad, FJ and Ponsoda, V (2016) Are fit indices really fit to estimate the number of factors with categorical variables? Some cautionary findings via Monte Carlo simulation. Psychological Methods 21, 93111.
Geschwind, DH and Flint, J (2015) Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science 349, 14891494.
Goodkind, M, Eickhoff, SB, Oathes, DJ, Jiang, Y, Chang, A, Jones-Hagata, LB, Ortega, BN, Zaiko, YV, Roach, EL, Korgaonkar, MS, Grieve, SM, Galatzer-Levy, I, Fox, PT and Etkin, A (2015) Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 305315.
Haslam, N, Holland, E and Kuppens, P (2012) Categories versus dimensions in personality and psychopathology: a quantitative review of taxometric research. Psychological Medicine 42, 903920.
Hayashi, K, Bentler, PM and Yuan, K-H (2007) On the likelihood ratio test for the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modeling 14, 505526.
Horn, JL (1965) A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika 30, 179185.
Hyvärinen, A, Karhunen, J and Oja, E (2001) Independent Component Analysis. New York: Wiley.
Jennrich, RI and Bentler, PM (2011) Exploratory bi-factor analysis. Psychometrika 76, 537549.
Jennrich, RI and Bentler, PM (2012) Exploratory bi-factor analysis: the oblique case. Psychometrika 77, 442454.
John, OP and Srivastava, S (1999) The Big-five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In Pervin, LA and John, OP (eds), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2nd Edn. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 102138.
John, OP, Naumann, LP and Soto, CJ (2008) Paradigm shift to the integrative Big five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and conceptual issues. In John, OP, Robins, RW and Pervin, LA (eds), Hand Book of Personality: Theory and Research, 3rd Edn. New York, USA: The Guilford Press, pp 114158.
Kotov, R, Gamez, W, Schmidt, F and Watson, D (2010) Linking ‘big’ personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 136, 768821.
Kotov, R, Krueger, RF, Watson, D, Achenbach, TM, Althoff, RR, Bagby, RM, Brown, TA, Carpenter, WT, Caspi, A, Clark, LA, Eaton, NR, Forbes, MK, Forbush, KT, Goldberg, D, Hasin, D, Hyman, SE, Ivanova, MY, Lynam, DR, Markon, K, Miller, JD, Moffitt, TE, Morey, LC, Mullins-Sweatt, SN, Ormel, J, Patrick, CJ, Regier, DA, Rescorla, L, Ruggero, CJ, Samuel, DB, Sellbom, M, Simms, LJ, Skodol, AE, Slade, T, South, SC, Tackett, JL, Waldman, ID, Waszczuk, MA, Widiger, TA, Wright, AGC and Zimmerman, M (2017) The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 126, 454477.
Krueger, RF (1999) The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 921926.
Lahey, BB, Van Hulle, CA, Singh, AL, Waldman, ID and Rathouz, PJ (2011) Higher-order genetic and environmental structure of prevalent forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 181189.
Lahey, BB, Applegate, B, Hakes, JK, Zald, DH, Hariri, AR and Rathouz, PJ (2012) Is there a general factor of prevalent psychopathology during adulthood? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 121, 971977.
Lahey, BB, Krueger, RF, Rathouz, PJ, Waldman, ID and Zald, DH (2017) Validity and utility of the general factor of psychopathology. World Psychiatry 16, 142144.
Lawley, DN and Maxwell, AE (1971) Factor Analysis as a Statistical Method. 2nd Edn. London: Butterworths & Co.
Lei, M and Lomax, RG (2005) The effect of varying degrees of nonnormality in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling 12, 127.
Lorenzo-Seva, U and ten Berge, JMF (2006) Tucker's congruence coefficient as a meaningful index of factor similarity. Methodology 2, 5764.
Mansolf, M and Reise, SP (2017) When and why the second-order and bifactor models are distinguishable. Intelligence 61, 120129.
Markon, KE, Chmielewski, M and Miller, CJ (2011) The reliability and validity of discrete and continuous measures of psychopathology: a quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin 137, 856879.
Morin, AJS, Arens, AK and Marsh, HW (2016) A bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling framework for the identification of distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality. Structural Equation Modeling 23, 116139.
Musek, J (2007) A general factor of personality: evidence for the Big One in the five-factor model. Journal of Research in Personality 41, 12131233.
Neale, MC and Cardon, LR (1992) Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Neale, MC, Hunter, MD, Pritikin, JN, Zahery, M, Brick, TR, Kirkpatrick, RM, Estabrook, R, Bates, TC, Maes, HH and Boker, SM (2016) Openmx 2.0: extended structural equation and statistical modeling. Psychometrika 81, 535549.
Nesvåg, R, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Gillespie, NA, Knudsen, GP, Bramness, JG, Kendler, KS and Ystrom, E (2017) Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between cannabis use and psychotic-like experiences in young adult twins. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 644653.
Neumann, A, Pappa, I, Lahey, BB, Verhulst, FC, Medina-Gomez, C, Jaddoe, VW, Bakermans-Kranenburg, MJ, Moffitt, TE, van IJzendoorn, MH and Tiemeier, H (2016). Single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of a general psychopathology factor in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 55, 10381045. e4.
Nilsen, TS, Knudsen, GP, Gervin, K, Brandt, I, Røysamb, E, Tambs, K, Orstavik, R, Lyle, R, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Magnus, P and Harris, JR (2013) The Norwegian Twin Registry from a public health perspective: a research update. Twin Research and Human Genetics 16, 285295.
Olsson, U (1979). Maximum likelihood estimation of the polychoric correlation coefficient. Psychometrika 44, 443460.
Oltmanns, JR, Smith, GT, Oltmanns, TF and Widiger, TA (2018). General factors of psychopathology, personality, and personality disorder: across domain comparisons. Clinical Psychological Science 6, 581589.
Pettersson, E, Larsson, H and Lichtenstein, P (2016) Common psychiatric disorders share the same genetic origin: a multivariate sibling study of the Swedish population. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 717721.
Pfohl, B, Blum, N and Zimmerman, M (1997) Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Washington: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.
Polderman, TJC, Benyamin, B, de Leeuw, CA, Sullivan, PF, van Bochoven, A, Visscher, PM and Posthuma, D (2015) Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics 47, 702709.
Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Krueger, RF, Ystrom, E, Torvik, FA, Rosenström, TH, Aggen, SH, South, SC, Neale, MC, Knudsen, GP, Kendler, KS and Czajkowski, NO (2017) Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors? Psychological Medicine 47, 22052215.
Rosenström, T and Jokela, M (2017) A parsimonious explanation of the resilient, undercontrolled, and overcontrolled personality types. European Journal of Personality 31, 658668.
Rosenström, T, Ystrom, E, Torvik, FA, Czaijkowski, NO, Gillespie, NA, Aggen, SH, Krueger, RF, Kendler, KS and Reichborn-Kjennerud, T (2017) Genetic and environmental structure of DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder: a twin study. Behavior Genetics 47, 265277.
Tackett, JL, Lahey, BB, van Hulle, C, Waldman, I, Krueger, RF and Rathouz, PJ (2013) Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 122, 11421153.
Tambs, K, Rønning, T, Prescott, CA, Kendler, KS, Reichborn-Kjennerud, T, Torgersen, S and Harris, JR (2009) The Norwegian Institute of Public Health twin study of mental health: examining recruitment and attrition bias. Twin Research and Human Genetics 12, 158168.
Tucker, LR (1951). A method for the synthesis of factor analysis studies. Technical report no. 984 Personnel Research Section. Department of the Army: Washington, DC.
van den Berg, SM, Glas, CAW and Boomsma, DI (2007) Variance decomposition using an IRT measurement model. Behavior Genetics 37, 604616.
Waldman, ID, Poore, HE, van Hulle, C, Rathouz, PJ and Lahey, BB (2016) External validity of a hierarchical dimensional model of child and adolescent psychopathology: tests using confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate behavior genetic analyses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 125, 10531066.
Wang, K, Gaitsch, H, Poon, H, Cox, NJ and Rzhetsky, A (2017) Classification of common human diseases derived from shared genetic and environmental determinants. Nature Genetics 49, 13191325.
Weijters, B, Geuens, M and Schillewaert, N (2010 a) The individual consistency of acquiescence and extreme response style in self-report questionnaires. Applied Psychological Measurement 34, 105121.
Weijters, B, Geuens, M and Schillewaert, N (2010 b) The stability of individual response styles. Psychological Methods 15, 96110.
Wetzel, E, Lüdtke, O, Zettler, I and Böhnke, JR (2016) The stability of extreme response style and acquiescence over 8 years. Assessment 23, 279291.
Widiger, TA and Mullins-Sweatt, SN (2009) Five-factor model of personality disorder: a proposal for DSM-V. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 5, 197220.
Wittchen, HU and Pfister, H (1997) DIA-X Interview (M-CIDI). Frankfurt: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Xia, Y and Yang, Y (2018) RMSEA, CFI, and TLI in structural equation modeling with ordered categorical data: the story they tell depends on the estimation methods. Behavior Research Methods [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.3758/s13428-018-1055-2.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Rosenström et al. supplementary material
Rosenström et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (541 KB)
541 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed