American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Edn, revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bergen, SE, Gardner, CO and Kendler, KS (2007) Age-related changes in heritability of behavioral phenotypes over adolescence and young adulthood: a meta-analysis. Twin Research and Human Genetics 10, 423–433.
Blonigen, DM, Hicks, BM, Krueger, RF, Patrick, CJ and Iacono, WG (2005) Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine 35, 637–648.
Bornovalova, MA, Hicks, BM, Iacono, WG and McGue, M (2009) Stability, change, and heritability of borderline personality disorder traits from adolescence to adulthood: a longitudinal twin study. Development and Psychopathology 21, 1335–1353.
Bulik-Sullivan, B, Finucane, HK, Anttila, V, Gusev, A, Day, FR, Loh, PR, ReproGen, C, Psychiatric Genomics, C, Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa of the Wellcome Trust Case Control, C, Duncan, L, Perry, JR, Patterson, N, Robinson, EB, Daly, MJ, Price, AL and Neale, BM (2015) An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits. Nature Genetics 47, 1236–1241.
Burt, SA, McGue, M, Krueger, RF and Iacono, WG (2005) Sources of covariation among the child-externalizing disorders: informant effects and the shared environment. Psychological Medicine 35, 1133–1144.
Caspi, A, Houts, RM, Belsky, DW, Goldman-Mellor, SJ, Harrington, H, Israel, S, Meier, MH, Ramrakha, S, Shalev, I, Poulton, R and Moffitt, TE (2014) The p factor: one general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science 2, 119–137.
Chantarujikapong, SI, Scherrer, JF, Xian, H, Eisen, SA, Lyons, MJ, Goldberg, J, Tsuang, M and True, WR (2001) A twin study of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms, panic disorder symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder in men. Psychiatry Research 103, 133–145.
Derks, EM, Dolan, CV and Boomsma, DI (2004) Effects of censoring on parameter estimates and power in genetic modeling. Twin Research 7, 659–669.
Duncan, LE, Ratanatharathorn, A, Aiello, AE, Almli, LM, Amstadter, AB, Ashley-Koch, AE, Baker, DG, Beckham, JC, Bierut, LJ, Bisson, J, Bradley, B, Chen, CY, Dalvie, S, Farrer, LA, Galea, S, Garrett, ME, Gelernter, JE, Guffanti, G, Hauser, MA, Johnson, EO, Kessler, RC, Kimbrel, NA, King, A, Koen, N, Kranzler, HR, Logue, MW, Maihofer, AX, Martin, AR, Miller, MW, Morey, RA, Nugent, NR, Rice, JP, Ripke, S, Roberts, AL, Saccone, NL, Smoller, JW, Stein, DJ, Stein, MB, Sumner, JA, Uddin, M, Ursano, RJ, Wildman, DE, Yehuda, R, Zhao, H, Daly, MJ, Liberzon, I, Ressler, KJ, Nievergelt, CM and Koenen, KC (2018) Largest GWAS of PTSD (N = 20 070) yields genetic overlap with schizophrenia and sex differences in heritability. Molecular Psychiatry 23, 666–673.
Eaton, NR, Krueger, RF, Keyes, KM, Skodol, AE, Markon, KE, Grant, BF and Hasin, DS (2011) Borderline personality disorder co-morbidity: relationship to the internalizing-externalizing structure of common mental disorders. Psychological Medicine 41, 1041–1050.
Eley, TC, Lichtenstein, P and Moffitt, TE (2003) A longitudinal behavioral genetic analysis of the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior. Development and Psychopathology 15, 383–402.
Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, Altamirano, LJ, Corley, RP, Young, SE, Rhea, SA and Hewitt, JK (2016) Stability and change in executive function abilities from late adolescence to early adulthood: a longitudinal twin study. Developmental Psychology 52, 326–340.
Fu, Q, Heath, AC, Bucholz, KK, Lyons, MJ, Tsuang, MT, True, WR and Eisen, SA (2007) Common genetic risk of major depression and nicotine dependence: the contribution of antisocial traits in a United States veteran male twin cohort. Twin Research and Human Genetics 10, 470–478.
Ginzburg, K, Ein-Dor, T and Solomon, Z (2010) Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression: a 20-year longitudinal study of war veterans. Journal of Affective Disorders 123, 249–257.
Gjone, H and Stevenson, J (1997) The association between internalizing and externalizing behavior in childhood and early adolescence: genetic or environmental common influences? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 25, 277–286.
Gustavson, DE, du Pont, A, Hatoum, AS, Rhee, SH, Kremen, WS, Hewitt, JK and Friedman, NP (2017) Genetic and environmental associations between procrastination and internalizing/externalizing psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science 5, 798–815.
Hink, LK, Rhee, SH, Corley, RP, Cosgrove, VE, Hewitt, JK, Schulz-Heik, RJ, Lahey, BB and Waldman, ID (2013) Personality dimensions as common and broadband-specific features for internalizing and externalizing disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 41, 939–957.
Hollingshead, AB (1975) Four Factor index of Social status. New Haven, CT: Yale University.
Hu, LT and Bentler, PM (1998) Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods 3, 424–453.
Kendler, KS and Myers, J (2014) The boundaries of the internalizing and externalizing genetic spectra in men and women. Psychological Medicine 44, 647–655.
Kendler, KS, Prescott, CA, Myers, J and Neale, MC (2003) The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 929–937.
Kilpatrick, DG, Resnick, HS, Milanak, ME, Miller, MW, Keyes, KM and Friedman, MJ (2013) National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. Journal of Traumatic Stress 26, 537–547.
King, SM, Iacono, WG and McGue, M (2004) Childhood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in the prediction of early substance use. Addiction 99, 1548–1559.
Koenen, KC, Fu, QJ, Ertel, K, Lyons, MJ, Eisen, SA, True, WR, Goldberg, J and Tsuang, MT (2008) Common genetic liability to major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in men. Journal of Affective Disorders 105, 109–115.
Kotov, R, Krueger, RF, Watson, D, Achenbach, TM, Althoff, RR, Bagby, M and Zimmerman, M (2017) The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 126, 454–477.
Kremen, WS, Thompson-Brenner, H, Leung, YM, Grant, MD, Franz, CE, Eisen, SA, Jacobson, KC, Boake, C and Lyons, MJ (2006) Genes, environment, and time: the Vietnam Era twin study of aging (VETSA). Twin Research and Human Genetics 9, 1009–1022.
Kremen, WS, Franz, CE and Lyons, MJ (2013 a) VETSA: the Vietnam Era twin study of aging. Twin Research and Human Genetics 16, 399–402.
Kremen, WS, Franz, CE and Lyons, MJ (2013 b) VETSA: the Vietnam Era twin study of aging - ADDENDUM. Twin Research and Human Genetics 16, 403.
Krueger, RF (1999) The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 921–926.
Krueger, RF, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Silva, PA and McGee, R (1996) Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders: a multitrait-multidiagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohort. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105, 299–312.
Krueger, RF, Hicks, BM, Patrick, CJ, Carlson, SR, Iacono, WG and McGue, M (2002) Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 411–424.
Lilienfeld, SO (2003) Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders: reflections and directions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 31, 285–291.
Lo, M-T, Hinds, DA, Tung, JY, Franz, C, Fan, C-C, Wang, Y, Smeland, OB, Schork, A, Holland, D and Kauppi, K (2017) Genome-wide analyses for personality traits identify six genomic loci and show correlations with psychiatric disorders. Nature genetics 49, 152–156.
Logue, MW, Solovieff, N, Leussis, MP, Wolf, EJ, Melista, E, Baldwin, C, Koenen, KC, Petryshen, TL and Miller, MW (2013) The ankyrin-3 gene is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and externalizing comorbidity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, 2249–2257.
Martin, NG, Eaves, LJ, Kearsey, MJ and Davies, P (1978) The power of the classical twin study. Heredity (Edinb) 40, 97–116.
Martin, J, Taylor, MJ and Lichtenstein, P (2018) Assessing the evidence for shared genetic risks across psychiatric disorders and traits. Psychological Medicine 48, 1759–1774.
Miller, MW, Kaloupek, DG, Dillon, AL and Keane, TM (2004) Externalizing and internalizing subtypes of combat-related PTSD: a replication and extension using the PSY-5 scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113, 636–645.
Muthén, LK and Muthén, BO (2010–2012) Mplus Version 7 User's Guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Petkus, AJ, Gatz, M, Reynolds, CA, Kremen, WS and Wetherell, JL (2016) Stability of genetic and environmental contributions to anxiety symptoms in older adulthood. Behavior Genetics 46, 492–505.
Plomin, R, Asbury, K and Dunn, J (2001) Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 46, 225–233.
Radloff, LS (1977) The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1, 385–401.
Robins, L, Helzer, J, Cottler, L and Goldring, E (1988) National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Version III Revised (DIS-III-R). St Louis, MO: Department of Psychiatry, Washington University Medical School.
Schoenborn, CA and Heyman, KM (2009) Health characteristics of adults aged 55 years and over: United States, 2004–2007. National Health Statistics Report 16, 1–31.
Spielberger, CD (1983) .
Tackett, JL, Lahey, BB, van Hulle, C, Waldman, I, Krueger, RF and Rathouz, PJ (2013) Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 122, 1142–1153.
Tellegen, A (1985) Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report. In Tuma, AH & Maser, JD (eds), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders. Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., pp. 681–706.
True, WR, Heath, AC, Scherrer, JF, Xian, H, Lin, N, Eisen, SA, Lyons, MJ, Goldberg, J and Tsuang, MT (1999a) Interrelationship of genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder and alcohol and marijuana dependence symptoms. American Journal of Medical Genetics 88, 391–397.
True, WR, Xian, H, Scherrer, JF, Madden, PA, Bucholz, KK, Heath, AC, Eisen, SA, Lyons, MJ, Goldberg, J and Tsuang, M (1999b) Common genetic vulnerability for nicotine and alcohol dependence in men. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 655–661.
Tsuang, MT, Bar, JL, Harley, RM and Lyons, MJ (2001) The harvard twin study of substance abuse: what we have learned. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 9, 267–279.
Visscher, PM, Wray, NR, Zhang, Q, Sklar, P, McCarthy, MI, Brown, MA and Yang, J (2017) 10 years of GWAS discovery: biology, function, and translation. The American Journal of Human Genetics 101, 5–22.
Ware, JE Jr and Sherbourne, CD (1992) The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): i. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care 30, 473–483.
Weathers, FW, Litz, BT, Herman, DS, Huska, JA and Keane, TM (1993) .
Weiss, B, Susser, K and Catron, T (1998) Common and specific features of childhood psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107, 118–127.
Whiteside, SP and Lynam, DR (2003) Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale. Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology 11, 210–217.
Xian, H, Chantarujikapong, SI, Scherrer, JF, Eisen, SA, Lyons, MJ, Goldberg, J, Tsuang, M and True, WR (2000) Genetic and environmental influences on posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug dependence in twin pairs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 61, 95–102.
Young, SE, Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, Willcutt, EG, Corley, RP, Haberstick, BC and Hewitt, JK (2009) Behavioral disinhibition: liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118, 117–130.