Ajnakina, O, David, AS and Murray, RM (2019) ‘At risk mental state’ clinics for psychosis – an idea whose time has come – and gone! Psychological Medicine 49, 529–534.
Albert, U, Tomassi, S, Maina, G and Tosato, S (2018) Prevalence of non-psychotic disorders in ultra-high risk individuals and transition to psychosis: a systematic review. Psychiatry Research 270, 1–12.
Aldao, A and Nolen-Hoeksema, S (2010) Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: a transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy 48, 974–983.
Amos, AJ (2014) Evidence that treatment prevents transition to psychosis in ultra-high-risk patients remains questionable. Schizophrenia Research 153, 240.
Andreou, C, Bailey, B and Borgwardt, S (2019) Assessment and treatment of individuals at high risk for psychosis. BJPsych Advances 25, 177–184.
Angermeyer, MC, Matschinger, H and Schomerus, G (2013) Attitudes towards psychiatric treatment and people with mental illness: changes over two decades. British Journal of Psychiatry 203, 146–151.
Armando, M, Nelson, B, Yung, AR, Ross, M, Birchwood, M, Girardi, P and Nastro, PF (2010) Psychotic-like experiences and correlation with distress and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Schizophrenia Research 119, 258–265.
Barron, D, Swami, V, Towell, T, Hutchinson, G and Morgan, KD (2015) Examination of the factor structure of the schizotypal personality questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults. BioMed Research International 2015, 1–7.
Bassilios, B, Telford, N, Rickwood, D, Spittal, MJ and Pirkis, J (2017) Complementary primary mental health programs for young people in Australia: Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) and headspace. International Journal of Mental Health Systems 11, 19.
Beck, K, Andreou, C, Studerus, E, Heitz, U, Ittig, S, Leanza, L and Riecher-Rössler, A (2019) Clinical and functional long-term outcome of patients at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis without transition to psychosis: a systematic review. Schizophrenia Research.
Birchwood, M and MacMillan, F (1993) Early intervention in schizophrenia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 27, 374–378.
Cannon, TD, Yu, C, Addington, J, Bearden, CE, Cadenhead, KS, Cornblatt, BA, Heinssen, R, Jeffries, CD, Mathalon, DH, McGlashan, TH, Perkins, DO, Seidman, LJ, Tsuang, MT, Walker, EF, Woods, SW and Kattan, MW (2016) An individualized risk calculator for research in prodromal psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 980–988.
Chen, WJ, Hsiao, CK and Lin, CCH (1997) Schizotypy in community samples: the three-factor structure and correlation with sustained attention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 649–654.
Chung, Y-C, Kang, N-I, Im, Y-J, Kim, S-W, Cho, IH, Lee, YM and Kwon, JS (2013) Validation of the Korean version of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory as a screening measure to detect adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 7, 71–79.
Conrad, AM, Lewin, TJ, Sly, KA, Schall, U, Halpin, SA, Hunter, M and Carr, VJ (2017) Utility of risk-status for predicting psychosis and related outcomes: evaluation of a 10-year cohort of presenters to a specialised early psychosis community mental health service. Psychiatry Research 247, 336–344.
Corcoran, C, Malaspina, D and Hercher, L (2005) Prodromal interventions for schizophrenia vulnerability: the risks of being ‘at risk’. Schizophrenia Research 73, 173–184.
Corcoran, CM, First, MB and Cornblatt, B (2010) The psychosis risk syndrome and its proposed inclusion in the DSM-V: a risk–benefit analysis. Schizophrenia Research 120, 16–22.
Daneluzzo, E, Bustini, M, Stratta, P, Casacchia, M and Rossi, A (1998) Schizotypal personality questionnaire and Wisconsin card sorting test in a population of DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients and control subjects. Comprehensive Psychiatry 39, 143–148.
Davies, C, Cipriani, A, Ioannidis, JPA, Radua, J, Stahl, D, Provenzani, U, McGuire, P and Fusar-Poli, P (2018) Lack of evidence to favor specific preventive interventions in psychosis: a network meta-analysis. World Psychiatry 17, 196–209.
Devoe, DJ, Farris, MS, Townes, P and Addington, J (2019) Attenuated psychotic symptom interventions in youth at risk of psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 13, 3–17.
Dudley, R, Aynsworth, C, Mosimann, U, Taylor, J-P, Smailes, D, Collerton, D, McCarthy-Jones, S and Urwyler, P (2019) A comparison of visual hallucinations across disorders. Psychiatry Research 272, 86–92.
Fusar-Poli, P (2017) Why ultra high risk criteria for psychosis prediction do not work well outside clinical samples and what to do about it. World Psychiatry 16, 212–213.
Fusar-Poli, P, Cappucciati, M, Rutigliano, G, Schultze-Lutter, F, Bonoldi, I, Borgwardt, S, Riecher-Rössler, A, Addington, J, Perkins, D, Woods, SW, McGlashan, TH, Lee, J, Klosterkötter, J, Yung, AR and McGuire, P (2015) At risk or not at risk? A meta-analysis of the prognostic accuracy of psychometric interviews for psychosis prediction. World Psychiatry 14, 322–332.
Fusar-Poli, P, Cappucciati, M, Borgwardt, S, Woods, SW, Addington, J, Nelson, B, Nieman, DH, Stahl, DR, Rutigliano, G, Riecher-Rössler, A, Simon, AE, Mizuno, M, Lee, TY, Kwon, JS, Lam, MML, Perez, J, Keri, S, Amminger, P, Metzler, S, Kawohl, W, Rössler, W, Lee, J, Labad, J, Ziermans, T, An, SK, Liu, C-C, Woodberry, KA, Braham, A, Corcoran, C, McGorry, P, Yung, AR and McGuire, PK (2016 a) Heterogeneity of psychosis risk within individuals at clinical high risk: a meta-analytical stratification. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 113–120.
Fusar-Poli, P, Schultze-Lutter, F, Cappucciati, M, Rutigliano, G, Bonoldi, I, Stahl, D, Borgwardt, S, Riecher-Rössler, A, Addington, J, Perkins, DO, Woods, SW, McGlashan, T, Lee, J, Klosterkötter, J, Yung, AR and McGuire, P (2016 b) The dark side of the moon: meta-analytical impact of recruitment strategies on risk enrichment in the clinical high risk state for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 732–743.
Gawęda, Ł, Pionke, R, Krężołek, M, Frydecka, D, Nelson, B and Cechnicki, A (2019) The interplay between childhood trauma, cognitive biases, psychotic-like experiences and depression and their additive impact on predicting lifetime suicidal behavior in young adults. Psychological Medicine.
Gross, G and Huber, G (1985) Psychopathology of basic stages of schizophrenia in view of formal thought disturbances. Psychopathology 18, 115–125.
Guloksuz, S and van Os, J (2018) Need for evidence-based early intervention programmes: a public health perspective. Evidence-Based Mental Health 21, 128–130.
Ho, B-C and Andreasen, NC (2001) Long delays in seeking treatment for schizophrenia. Lancet 357, 898–900.
Hodgekins, J, Lower, R, Wilson, J, Cole, H, Ugochukwu, U, Maxwell, S and Fowler, D (2018) Clinician-rated and self-reported psychotic-like experiences in individuals accessing a specialist Youth Mental Health Service. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 57, 367–381.
Ising, HK, Veling, W, Loewy, RL, Rietveld, MW, Rietdijk, J, Dragt, S, Klaassen, RMC, Nieman, DH, Wunderink, L, Linszen, DH and van der Gaag, M (2012) The validity of the 16-item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) to screen for ultra high risk of developing psychosis in the general help-seeking population. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 1288–1296.
Jackson, M (1997) Benign schizotypy? The case of spiritual experience. In Claridge, G (ed.), Implications for Illness and Health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 171–201.
Jaspers, K (1963) General Psychopathology (1923/1946). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Kelleher, I, Connor, D, Clarke, MC, Devlin, N, Harley, M and Cannon, M (2012) Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies. Psychological Medicine 42, 1857–1863.
Kelleher, I, Devlin, N, Wigman, JTW, Kehoe, A, Murtagh, A, Fitzpatrick, C and Cannon, M (2014) Psychotic experiences in a mental health clinic sample: implications for suicidality, multimorbidity and functioning. Psychological Medicine 44, 1615–1624.
Klein, C, Andresen, B and Jahn, T (1997) Erfassung der schizotypen Persönlichkeit nach DSM-III-R: Psychometrische Eigenschaften einer autorisierten deutschsprachigen Übersetzung des ‘Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire’ (SPQ) von Raine. [Psychometric assessment of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire]. Diagnostica 43, 347–369.
Klosterkötter, J, Schultze-Lutter, F, Bechdolf, A and Ruhrmann, S (2011) Prediction and prevention of schizophrenia: what has been achieved and where to go next? World Psychiatry 10, 165–174.
Lehrer, J (2010) The truth wears off. Is there something wrong with the scientific method? The New Yorker 2010, 52–57.
Lin, A, Wood, SJ, Nelson, B, Beavan, A, McGorry, P and Yung, AR (2015) Outcomes of nontransitioned cases in a sample at ultra-high risk for psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 172, 249–258.
Liu, C-C and Demjaha, A (2013) Antipsychotic interventions in prodromal psychosis. CNS Drugs 27, 197–205.
Malla, A, Iyer, S, McGorry, P, Cannon, M, Coughlan, H, Singh, S, Jones, P and Joober, R (2016) From early intervention in psychosis to youth mental health reform: a review of the evolution and transformation of mental health services for young people. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 51, 319–326.
Marshall, M and Rathbone, J (2011) Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, .
Marshall, M, Lewis, S, Lockwood, A, Drake, R, Jones, P and Croudace, T (2005) Association between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in cohorts of first-episode patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 975–983.
McCreery, C (1993) Schizotypy and Out-of-the-Body-Experiences (dissertation). University of Oxford, Oxford.
McGorry, PD, Edwards, J, Mihalopoulos, C, Harrigan, SM and Jackson, HJ (1996) EPPIC: an evolving system of early detection and optimal management. Schizophrenia Bulletin 22, 305–326.
McGorry, P, Trethowan, J and Rickwood, D (2019) Creating headspace for integrated youth mental health care. World Psychiatry 18, 140–141.
Michel, C, Ruhrmann, S, Schimmelmann, BG, Klosterkötter, J and Schultze-Lutter, F (2018) Course of clinical high-risk states for psychosis beyond conversion. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 268, 39–48.
Miegel, F, Jelinek, L and Moritz, S (2019) Dysfunctional beliefs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression as assessed with the Beliefs Questionnaire (BQ). Psychiatry Research 272, 265–274.
Moritz, S, Ferahli, S and Naber, D (2004) Memory and attention performance in psychiatric patients: lack of correspondence between clinician-rated and patient-rated functioning with neuropsychological test results. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 10, 623–633.
Moritz, S, Claussen, M, Hauschildt, M and Kellner, M (2014 a) Perceptual properties of obsessive thoughts are associated with low insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 202, 562–565.
Moritz, S, Hörmann, CC, Schröder, J, Berger, T, Jacob, GA, Meyer, B, Holmes, EA, Späth, C, Hautzinger, M, Lutz, W, Rose, M and Klein, JP (2014 b) Beyond words: sensory properties of depressive thoughts. Cognition and Emotion 28, 1047–1056.
Moritz, S, Balzan, RP, Bohn, F, Veckenstedt, R, Kolbeck, K, Bierbrodt, J and Dietrichkeit, M (2016) Subjective versus objective cognition: evidence for poor metacognitive monitoring in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 178, 74–79.
Moritz, S, Berna, F, Jaeger, S, Westermann, S and Nagel, M (2017) The customer is always right? Subjective target symptoms and treatment preferences in patients with psychosis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 267, 335–339.
Moritz, S, Purdon, C, Jelinek, L, Chiang, B and Hauschildt, M (2018) If it is absurd, then why do you do it? The richer the obsessional experience, the more compelling the compulsion. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 25, 210–216.
Moritz, S, Andresen, B and Sengutta, M (2019) The specificity of schizotypal scales and some implications for clinical high-risk research. Personality and Individual Differences.
Nam, B, Hilimire, M, Schiffman, J and DeVylder, J (2016) Psychotic experiences in the context of depression: the cumulative role of victimization. Journal of Psychiatric Research 82, 136–140.
Nelson, B, McGorry, PD, Wichers, M, Wigman, JTW and Hartmann, JA (2017) Moving from static to dynamic models of the onset of mental disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 528–534.
Nieman, DH, Rike, WH, Becker, HE, Dingemans, PM, van Amelsvoort, TA, de Haan, L, van der Gaag, M, Denys, DAJP and Linszen, DH (2009) Prescription of antipsychotic medication to patients at ultra high risk of developing psychosis. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 24, 223–228.
Oliver, D, Kotlicka-Antczak, M, Minichino, A, Spada, G, McGuire, P and Fusar-Poli, P (2018) Meta-analytical prognostic accuracy of the Comprehensive Assessment of at Risk Mental States (CAARMS): the need for refined prediction. European Psychiatry 49, 62–68.
Peltier, BD (1985) An Investigation of Response Bias in the Chapman Scales. Reno: University of Nevada.
Penttilä, M, Jääskeläinen, E, Hirvonen, N, Isohanni, M and Miettunen, J (2014) Duration of untreated psychosis as predictor of long-term outcome in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 205, 88–94.
Perkins, DO, Gu, H, Boteva, K and Lieberman, JA (2005) Relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: a critical review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1785–1804.
Polari, A, Lavoie, S, Yuen, H-P, Amminger, P, Berger, G, Chen, E, deHaan, L, Hartmann, J, Markulev, C, Melville, F, Nieman, D, Nordentoft, M, Riecher-Rössler, A, Smesny, S, Stratford, J, Verma, S, Yung, A, McGorry, P and Nelson, B (2018) Clinical trajectories in the ultra-high risk for psychosis population. Schizophrenia Research 197, 550–556.
Pompili, M, Amador, XF, Girardi, P, Harkavy-Friedman, J, Harrow, M, Kaplan, K, Krausz, M, Lester, D, Meltzer, HY, Modestin, J, Montross, LP, Bo Mortensen, P, Munk-Jørgensen, P, Nielsen, J, Nordentoft, M, Saarinen, PI, Zisook, S, Wilson, ST and Tatarelli, R (2007) Suicide risk in schizophrenia: learning from the past to change the future. Annals of General Psychiatry 6, 10.
Preti, A, Cella, M and Raballo, A (2014) Preventing or masking psychosis? Possible unintended consequences of the ultra high-risk strategy. Schizophrenia Research 153, 241–242.
Raine, A (1991) The SPQ: a scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophrenia Bulletin 17, 555–564.
Röhlinger, J, Wulf, F, Fieker, M and Moritz, S (2015) Sensory properties of obsessive thoughts in OCD and the relationship to psychopathology. Psychiatry Research 230, 592–596.
Rosengard, RJ, Malla, A, Mustafa, S, Iyer, SN, Joober, R, Bodnar, M, Lepage, M and Shah, JL (2019) Association of pre-onset subthreshold psychotic symptoms with longitudinal outcomes during treatment of a first episode of psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry 76, 61–70.
Rüsch, N, Corrigan, PW, Heekeren, K, Theodoridou, A, Dvorsky, D, Metzler, S, Müller, M, Walitza, S and Rössler, W (2014) Well-being among persons at risk of psychosis: the role of self-labeling, shame, and stigma stress. Psychiatric Services 65, 483–489.
Rüsch, N, Heekeren, K, Theodoridou, A, Müller, M, Corrigan, PW, Mayer, B, Metzler, S, Dvorsky, D, Walitza, S and Rössler, W (2015) Stigma as a stressor and transition to schizophrenia after one year among young people at risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 166, 43–48.
Scherbarth-Roschmann, P and Hautzinger, M (1991) Zur Psychometrischen Erfassung von Schizotypie. Methodische Überprüfung und erste Validierung von zwei Skalen zur Erfassung von Risikomerkmalen [Psychometric detection of schizotypy: evaluation and validation of two German scales for risk detection]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie 20, 238–250.
Schmidt, SJ, Schultze-Lutter, F, Schimmelmann, BG, Maric, NP, Salokangas, RKR, Riecher-Rössler, A, van der Gaag, M, Meneghelli, A, Nordentoft, M, Marshall, M, Morrison, A, Raballo, A, Klosterkötter, J and Ruhrmann, S (2015) EPA guidance on the early intervention in clinical high risk states of psychoses. European Psychiatry 30, 388–404.
Schomerus, G, Schwahn, C, Holzinger, A, Corrigan, PW, Grabe, HJ, Carta, MG and Angermeyer, MC (2012) Evolution of public attitudes about mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 125, 440–452.
Schomerus, G, Angermeyer, MC, Baumeister, SE, Stolzenburg, S, Link, BG and Phelan, JC (2016) An online intervention using information on the mental health-mental illness continuum to reduce stigma. European Psychiatry 32, 21–27.
Schultze-Lutter, F, Addington, J, Ruhrmann, S and Klosterkötter, J (2007) Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). Rom: Giovanni Fioriti Editore.
Schutte, NS and Malouff, JM (1995) Sourcebook of Adult Assessment Strategies. New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media.
Süllwold, L (1991) Manual zum Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF). [Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) Manual]. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Taylor, PJ, Hutton, P and Wood, L (2015) Are people at risk of psychosis also at risk of suicide and self-harm? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 45, 911–926.
van der Gaag, M, Smit, F, Bechdolf, A, French, P, Linszen, DH, Yung, AR, McGorry, P and Cuijpers, P (2013) Preventing a first episode of psychosis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled prevention trials of 12 month and longer-term follow-ups. Schizophrenia Research 149, 56–62.
van Os, J and Guloksuz, S (2017) A critique of the ‘ultra-high risk’ and ‘transition’ paradigm. World Psychiatry 16, 200–206.
van Os, J, Linscott, RJ, Myin-Germeys, I, Delespaul, P and Krabbendam, L (2009) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine 39, 179–195.
Varghese, D, Scott, J, Welham, J, Bor, W, Najman, J, O'Callaghan, M, Williams, G and McGrath, J (2011) Psychotic-like experiences in major depression and anxiety disorders: a population-based survey in young adults. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 389–393.
Ventriglio, A, Gentile, A, Bonfitto, I, Stella, E, Mari, M, Steardo, L and Bellomo, A (2016) Suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychiatry 7, 116.
Villani, M and Kovess-Masféty, V (2017) Qu'en est-il de l'annonce du diagnostic de schizophrénie aujourd'hui en France? [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?]. L'Encéphale 43, 160–169.
Xu, Z, Mayer, B, Müller, M, Heekeren, K, Theodoridou, A, Dvorsky, D, Metzler, S, Oexle, N, Walitza, S, Rössler, W and Rüsch, N (2016) Stigma and suicidal ideation among young people at risk of psychosis after one year. Psychiatry Research 243, 219–224.
Yang, LH, Anglin, DM, Wonpat-Borja, AJ, Opler, MG, Greenspoon, M and Corcoran, CM (2013) Public stigma associated with psychosis risk syndrome in a college population: implications for peer intervention. Psychiatric Services 64, 284–288.
Yung, AR (2010) Antipsychotic treatment of UHR (‘prodromal’) individuals. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 4, 197–199.
Yung, AR, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell'Olio, M, Francey, SM, Cosgrave, EM, Killackey, E, Stanford, C, Godfrey, K and Buckby, J (2005) Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 964–971.