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Depressive psychopathology in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

  • Sarah E. Herniman (a1) (a2) (a3), Kelly Allott (a1) (a2), Lisa J. Phillips (a3), Stephen J. Wood (a1) (a2) (a4), Jacqueline Uren (a1) (a2), Sumudu R. Mallawaarachchi (a1) (a2) and Sue M. Cotton (a1) (a2)...



Despite knowing for many decades that depressive psychopathology is common in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FES), there is limited knowledge regarding the extent and nature of such psychopathology (degree of comorbidity, caseness, severity) and its demographic, clinical, functional and treatment correlates. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of depressive disorder and caseness, and the pooled mean severity of depressive symptoms, as well as the demographic, illness, functional and treatment correlates of depressive psychopathology in FES.


This systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression was prospectively registered (CRD42018084856) and conducted in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines.


Forty studies comprising 4041 participants were included. The pooled prevalence of depressive disorder and caseness was 26.0% (seven samples, N = 855, 95% CI 22.1–30.3) and 43.9% (11 samples, N = 1312, 95% CI 30.3–58.4), respectively. The pooled mean percentage of maximum depressive symptom severity was 25.1 (38 samples, N = 3180, 95% CI 21.49–28.68). Correlates of depressive psychopathology were also found.


At least one-quarter of individuals with FES will experience, and therefore require treatment for, a full-threshold depressive disorder. Nearly half will experience levels of depressive symptoms that are severe enough to warrant diagnostic investigation and therefore clinical intervention – regardless of whether they actually fulfil diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder. Depressive psychopathology is prominent in FES, manifesting not only as superimposed comorbidity, but also as an inextricable symptom domain.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Sarah E. Herniman, E-mail:


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Depressive psychopathology in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

  • Sarah E. Herniman (a1) (a2) (a3), Kelly Allott (a1) (a2), Lisa J. Phillips (a3), Stephen J. Wood (a1) (a2) (a4), Jacqueline Uren (a1) (a2), Sumudu R. Mallawaarachchi (a1) (a2) and Sue M. Cotton (a1) (a2)...


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