Skip to main content Accessibility help

Comparison of alternative models for personality disorders, II: 6-, 8- and 10-year follow-up

  • L. C. Morey (a1), C. J. Hopwood (a2), J. C. Markowitz (a3), J. G. Gunderson (a4), C. M. Grilo (a5), T. H. McGlashan (a5), M. T. Shea (a6), S. Yen (a6), C. A. Sanislow (a7), E. B. Ansell (a5) and A. E. Skodol (a8)...



Several conceptual models have been considered for the assessment of personality pathology in DSM-5. This study sought to extend our previous findings to compare the long-term predictive validity of three such models: the Five-Factor Model (FFM), the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), and DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs).


An inception cohort from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study (CLPS) was followed for 10 years. Baseline data were used to predict long-term outcomes, including functioning, Axis I psychopathology, and medication use.


Each model was significantly valid, predicting a host of important clinical outcomes. Lower-order elements of the FFM system were not more valid than higher-order factors, and DSM-IV diagnostic categories were less valid than dimensional symptom counts. Approaches that integrate normative traits and personality pathology proved to be most predictive, as the SNAP, a system that integrates normal and pathological traits, generally showed the largest validity coefficients overall, and the DSM-IV PD syndromes and FFM traits tended to provide substantial incremental information relative to one another.


DSM-5 PD assessment should involve an integration of personality traits with characteristic features of PDs.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: L. C. Morey, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4235, USA. (Email:


Hide All
Alden, LE, Wiggins, JS, Pincus, A (1990). Construction of circumplex scales for the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Journal of Personality Assessment 55, 521536.
APA (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Blashfield, RK, Intoccia, V (2000). Growth of the literature on the topic of personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 472473.
Clark, LA (1993). Manual for the Schedule of Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN.
Costa, PT Jr., McCrae, RR (1992). NEO PI-R Professional Manual (Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory). Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Distel, MA, Trull, TJ, Willemsen, G, Vink, JM, Derom, CA, Lynskey, M, Martin, NG, Boomsma, DI (2009). The five-factor model of personality and borderline personality disorder: a genetic analysis of comorbidity. Biological Psychiatry 66, 11311138.
Grucza, RA, Goldberg, LR (2007). The comparative validity of 11 modern personality inventories: predictions based on behavioral acts, informant reports, and clinical indicators. Journal of Personality Assessment 89, 167187.
Gunderson, JG, Shea, MT, Skodol, AE, McGlashan, TH, Morey, LC, Stout, RL, Zanarini, MC, Grilo, CM, Oldham, JM, Keller, M (2000). The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. I: Development, aims, design, and sample characteristics. Journal of Personality Disorders 14, 300315.
Heumann, KA, Morey, LC (1990). Reliability of categorical and dimensional judgments of personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 147, 498500.
Keller, MB, Lavori, PW, Friedman, B, Nielson, E, Endicott, J, McDonald-Scott, P, Andreason, NC (1987). The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation: a comprehensive method for assessing outcome in prospective longitudinal studies. Archives of General Psychiatry 44, 540548.
Krueger, RF, Eaton, NR, Derringer, J, Markon, KE, Watson, D, Skodol, AE (2011). Personality in DSM-5: helping delineate personality disorder content and framing the metastructure. Journal of Personality Assessment 94, 325331.
Krueger, RF, Skodol, AE, Livesley, WJ, Shrout, PE, Huang, Y (2007). Synthesizing categorical and dimensional approaches to personality disorders: refining the research agenda for DSM-V, Axis II. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 16, 6573.
Livesley, WJ, Jang, KL, Vernon, PA (1998). Phenotypic and genetic structure of traits delineating personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 941948.
Markon, KE, Chmielewski, M, Miller, CJ (2011). The reliability and validity of discrete and continuous measures of psychopathology: a quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin 137, 856879.
Miller, JD, Maples, J, Few, LR, Morse, JQ, Yaggi, KE, Pilkonis, PA (2010). Using clinician-rated five-factor model data to score the DSM-IV personality disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment 92, 296305.
Morey, LC (1991). Personality Assessment Inventory – Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Morey, LC, Hopwood, CJ, Gunderson, JG, Shea, MT, Skodol, AE, Grilo, CM, Yen, S, McGlashan, TH (2007). Comparison of alternative models for personality disorders. Psychological Medicine 37, 983994.
Morey, LC, Zanarini, MC (2000). Borderline personality: traits and disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109, 733737.
Shedler, J, Beck, A, Fonagy, P, Gabbard, GO, Gunderson, J, Kernberg, O, Michels, R, Westen, D (2010). Personality disorders in DSM-5. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 10261028.
Skodol, AE, Bender, DS, Morey, LC, Clark, LA, Oldham, JM, Alarcon, RD, Krueger, RF, Verheul, R, Bell, CC, Siever, LJ (2011 a). Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5. Journal of Personality Disorders 25, 136169.
Skodol, AE, Clark, LA, Bender, DS, Krueger, RF, Morey, LC, Verheul, R, Alarcon, RD, Bell, CC, Siever, LJ, Oldham, JM (2011 b). Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5, Part I: Description and rationale. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 2, 4–22.
Skodol, AE, Oldham, JE, Bender, DS, Dyck, IR, Stout, RL, Morey, LC, Shea, MT, Zanarini, MC, Sanislow, CA, Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH, Gunderson, JG (2005). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: relationships to functional impairment. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 19191925.
Stevens, J (2002). Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences, 4th edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Weisberg, S (1985). Applied Linear Regression, 2nd edn. John Wiley: New York.
Widiger, TA (2011). The DSM-5 dimensional model of personality disorder: rationale and empirical support. Journal of Personality Disorders 25, 222234.
Widiger, TA, Coker, LA (2002). Assessing personality disorders. In Clinical Personality Assessment: Practical Approaches , 2nd edn (ed. Butcher, J.), pp. 407434. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Widiger, TA, Livesley, WJ, Clark, LA (2009). An integrative dimensional classification of personality disorder. Psychological Assessment 21, 243255.
Widiger, TA, Trull, TJ (2007). Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: shifting to a dimensional model. American Psychologist 62, 7183.
Zanarini, MC, Skodol, AE, Bender, DS, Dolan, R, Sanislow, CA, Schaefer, E, Morey, LC, Grilo, CM, Shea, MT, McGlashan, TH, Gunderson, JG (2000). The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: reliability of Axis I and II diagnoses. Journal of Personality Disorders 14, 291299.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed