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Confronting Hate Collectively

  • Elizabeth Levy Paluck (a1) and Michael Suk-Young Chwe (a2)



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Berlinger, Joshua, and Frehse, Rob. 2017. “Jewish Cemetery Vandalized in New York, Third Case in Recent Weeks.”, March 3. Available at
Burns, Alexander. 2015. “Choice Words from Donald Trump, Presidential Candidate.” New York Times, June 16. Available at
Chokshi, Niraj. 2017. “100 Headstones Toppled at a Jewish Cemetery in Philadelphia.” New York Times, February 26. Available at
Chwe, Michael Suk-Young. 2013. Rational Ritual: Culture, Coordination, and Common Knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Czopp, Alexander M., Margo Monteith, J., and Mark, Aimee Y.. 2006. “Standing Up for a Change: Reducing Bias through Interpersonal Confrontation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90: 784803.
Fahrenthold, David A. 2016. “Trump Recorded Having Extremely Lewd Conversation about Women in 2005.” Washington Post, October 7. Available at
Ford, Thomas E., Boxer, Christie F., Armstrong, Jacob, and Edel, Jessica R.. 2008. “More than ‘Just a Joke’: The Prejudice-Releasing Function of Sexist Humor.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34: 159–70.
Ford, Thomas E., and Ferguson, Mark A.. 2004. “Social Consequences of Disparagement Humor: A Prejudiced Norm Theory.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 8: 7994.
Guerra, Kristine. 2016. “‘It’s a Sickness’: Letters Calling for Genocide of Muslims Sent to Mosques across the Country.” Washington Post, November 29. Available at
Haberman, Maggie. 2015. “Donald Trump Says His Mocking of New York Times Reporter Was Misread.” New York Times, November 26. Available at
Kessler, Glenn. 2015. “Trump’s Outrageous Claim That ‘Thousands’ of New Jersey Muslims Celebrated the 9/11 Attacks.” Washington Post, November 22. Available at
Masek, Kera. 2016. “75-Year-Old Sarasota Man Says He Was Attacked for Being Gay.” ABC Action News, WFTS Tampa Bay, November 17. Available at
McAdams, Richard. 2015. The Expressive Powers of Law: Theories and Limits. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Munger, Kevin. 2016. “Tweetment Effects on the Tweeted: Experimentally Reducing Racist Harassment.” Political Behavior. Doi:10.1007/s11109-016-9373-5.
O’Toole, Mary Ellen. 1999. The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective. Critical Incident Response Group, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, FBI Academy. Available at
Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, Shepherd, Hana, and Aronow, Peter M.. 2016. “Changing Climates of Conflict: A Social Network Experiment in 56 Schools.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113: 566–71.
Shteynberg, Garriy, Bramlett, James M., Fles, Elizabeth H., and Cameron, Jaclyn. 2016. “The Broadcast of Shared Attention and Its Impact on Political Persuasion.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 111: 665–73.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2016. “Ten Days After: Harassment and Intimidation in the Aftermath of the Election.” November 29. Available at
Yan, Holly, Sgueglia, Kristina, and Walker, Kylie. 2016. “‘Make America White Again’: Hate Speech and Crimes Post-Election.”, December 22. Available at
Yanagizawa-Drott, David. 2014. “Propaganda and Conflict: Evidence from the Rwandan Genocide.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 129: 1947–94.


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