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The Life of Mary Anderson: An Intimate Response to the Turn-of-the-Century World of Transatlantic Migration

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 July 2009

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On the green slopes of Slieve Martin in County Down where the Mourne Mountains reach Carlingford Lough rests a forty-ton glacial rock called Cloughmore. According to Irish folklore, the giant Fionn M'Comhal hurled the enormous boulder at Benandonner, his Caledonian foe from Scotland, and many believe that ancient Druids chose the site for their rituals. Rain obscures the view from the stone's side some two hundred days of the year, but on a clear day, a stunning vista from Cloughmore emerges: streams trickling down to the shores of the deep Irish Sea and, amidst woods running uphill, the small village of Rostrevor.

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Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2005

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I thank Daniel T. Rodgers for his insightful comments on various drafts of this essay and Princeton University's Department of History for overlooking the potential folly of sending a young scholar in U.S. History to a foreign country for research and funding this project anyway. I am also grateful to the Deputy Keeper of the Records at the Public Records Office of Northern Ireland for permission to publish from Mary Anderson's writings and, for their helpful advice, to members of the research staff at the Public Records Office in Belfast and the Centre for Migration Studies in Omagh. This essay is dedicated in memory of William J. Webster, generous host and quick-witted guide to the North of Ireland.

1. Mary's memoir and letters, along with a cover letter, have been photocopied and deposited at the Public Records Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast (hereafter cited as PRONI), courtesy of General Sir John Anderson (T/3258/4/1–14). Transcriptions of the memoir and seven of the letters can also be found in the Emigration Database at the Centre for Migration Studies in Omagh, Northern Ireland. Subsequent quotes from Mary's writings have been taken from the transcript versions of the Centre for Migration Studies, with the exception of the five letters found only in PRONI: T/3258/4/3, T/3258/4/5–7, and T3258/4/10. Mary died in the late 1930s, and, as her will could not be found in the archives of Northern Ireland, she was probably buried in England.

2. Unlike most other European nationals who migrated to the United States in mass numbers between roughly the 1870s and the 1920s, single women contributed significantly to the Irish exodus. Miller, Kerby's Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985)Google Scholar provides one of the most thorough and balanced general accounts of Irish life and emigration to the United States; on post-Famine migration, see 345–555, and, for its demographics, see especially 346–53 and 499–500.

3. Emphasis on the relationship between distinct ethnic identities, immigrants' conflicts with mainstream culture, and their partial or full assimilation into American life began in large part with the Chicago School of sociologists in the 1920s and the post-World War II work of Oscar Handlin and persists in many ethnic studies. Recent interest in cultural pluralism and ethnic diversity has inspired the work of scholars like Werner Sollors and David Hollinger.

4. For an overview of back migration, see Wyman, Mark, Round-trip America: The Immigrants Return to Europe, 1880–1930 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993)Google Scholar. On international migration systems, the following works organized by Dirk Hoerder are especially helpful: Hoerder, Dirk and Moch, Leslie, eds., European Migrants: Global and Local Perspectives (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996)Google Scholar; Hoerder, Dirk and Rössler, Horst, eds., Distant Magnets: Expectations and Realities in the Immigrant Experience, 1840–1930 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1993)Google Scholar; and Hoerder, Dirk, ed., Labor Migration in the Atlantic Economies: The European and American Working Classes During the Period of Industrialization (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1985)Google Scholar. On chain migration, see Wyman, , Round-trip America, 3236Google Scholar; Moch, Leslie, “The European Perspective: Changing Conditions and Multiple Migrations, 1750–1914,” in Moch, , European Migrants, 125–26Google Scholar; Bodnar, John, The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), 5763, 68Google Scholar; and Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 134Google Scholar.

5. Hoerder, Dirk, “Migration in the Atlantic Economies: Regional European Origins and Worldwide Expansion,” in Hoerder, and Moch, , European Migrants, 22Google Scholar.

6. Paul, Rodman W., The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition, 1859–1900 (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), passimGoogle Scholar; North, Douglass, “International Capital Flows and the Development of the American West,” Journal of Economic History 16 (12 1956): 493505CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Billington, Ray Allen, “The Garden of the World: Fact and Fiction,” in The Heritage of the Middle West, ed. Murray, John (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958), 2753Google Scholar.

7. Shortridge, James R., Peopling the Plains: Who Settled Where in Frontier Kansas (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995), ch. 4Google Scholar; Winther, Oscar, “English Migration to the American West, 1865–1900,” in In the Trek of the Immigrants: Essays Presented to Carl Wittke, ed. Ander, O. Fritiof (Rock Island, Ill.: Augustana College Library, 1964), 115–26Google Scholar; Winther, Oscar, “Promoting the American West in England, 1865–1890,” Journal of Economic History 16 (12 1956): 482–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Spence, Clark, “When the Pound Sterling Went West: British Investments and the American Mineral Frontier,” Journal of Economic History 16 (12 1956): 506–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Paul, , Far West, 197200Google Scholar; Thomas, Brinley, Migration and Economic Growth: A Study of Great Britain and the Atlantic Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), pts. 1–3Google Scholar; Murray, John, “Inheritance from the Old World,” in Murray, , Heritage of the Middle West, 326Google Scholar; and Rev. Alexander King, letter to the editor of the London Observer, as quoted in Winther, “Promoting the American West.”

8. These figures unfortunately do not include Irish migration to other countries of the United Kingdom or make allowances for seasonal and back migration. Nor do they probably take into account migrants arriving in the United States via Canada. Statistics on emigration and immigration in the secondary literature often differ widely due to authors' intentions and discrepancies in the period's varied and problematical sources. I have relied on the following: Commission on Emigration and Other Population Problems … (Dublin: Ministry of Social Welfare, 1954), 309–11Google Scholar, as reprinted in Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 569Google Scholar; and Bleasing, Patrick, The Irish in America: A Guide to the Literature and the Manuscript Collections (Washington, D.C.: Catholic of America Press, 1992), 287333Google Scholar.

9. Diner, Hasia, Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983Google Scholar) (on women, passim); Higham, John, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925 (1955; rept. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995), 5867, 7787Google Scholar; Bodnar, , Transplanted, 9091, 111, 203–4Google Scholar; Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 492555Google Scholar; and Taylor, Philip, The Distant Magnet: European Emigration to the U.S.A. (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1971), 19, 174–76, 178, 186–87, 197–99, 210, 211, 230Google Scholar.

10. Mary Anderson, letter to her mother from the S.S. Peruvian, August 28, 1884, in PRONI (T/3258/4/2).

11. Mary Anderson, letter to her mother, begun from the Arlington Hotel, Coburg, Canada, September 3, 1884, in PRONI (T/3258/3); and letter to her father, Brise House, Chicago, September 8, 1884, in PRONI (T/3258/4/4).

12. The letters cited above.

13. Paul, , Far West, 16, 121138, 220251Google Scholar; Shortridge, , Peopling the Plains, ch. 4Google Scholar; Richmond, Robert, Kansas: A Pictorial History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992), 79156Google Scholar; and Painter, Nell Irvin, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas After Reconstruction: The First Major Migration to the North of Ex-slaves (1976; rept. New York: W. W. Norton, 1986)Google Scholar.

14. Haywood, Robert, Victorian West: Class and Culture in Kansas Cattle Towns (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), passimGoogle Scholar; Kirkman, Kay, Wichita: A Pictorial History (Norfolk, Va.: Donning, 1981), chs. 2–4Google Scholar; Richmond, , Kansas, 76, 92, 105109Google Scholar; and Mary Anderson's Memoir, written in 1928 with additions made in the 1930s, in PRONI (T/3258/4/1), hereafter cited simply as Memoir.

15. Mary Anderson, letters to her mother from Wichita, Kansas, October 20, 1884, in PRONI (T/3258/4/5), and December 4, 1884 (T/3258/4/6); March 19, 1885 (T/3258/4/7); July 4, 1886 (T/3258/4/8); and July 9, 1886 (T/3258/4/9); and Memoir. Wichita's classrooms were indeed notoriously overcrowded, underheated, poorly lit, and lacking in supplies — so much so that a local newspaper declared its schools “a disgrace to the city and a stigma upon [the town's] boasted enterprise and intelligence” (see Haywood, , Victorian West, 114–15Google Scholar).

16. See Memoir and letters cited in note 15.

17. Extant censuses from Ireland before 1901 are few and far between. British authorities ordered many of them destroyed during World War I, and a substantial portion of those remaining burned in Dublin's Four Courts Fire in 1922 (1659 Census of Ireland, in PRONI; MacCabe's Directory of Newry, Warrenpoint, and Rosstrevor, Containing an Abstract History of Those Towns [Drogheda: Thomas Verdon, 1830], 90Google Scholar; Picturesque Handbook of Carlingford Bay [Newry: Greer, 1846], 28, 29, 36, 43Google Scholar; Crowe, W. Haughton, Village in Seven Hills: The Story and Stories ofRostrevor, Co. Down [1972; rept. Dundalk: Dundalgan, 1973], 50, 78Google Scholar; and reprint from Newry Magazine [1815] in MrsCordner-Pinkerton, , compiler and publisher, The Open Window: An Annual of Literature and Popular Yearbook [Newry, 1901], 60Google Scholar).

18. Picturesque Handbook, 29, 34, 37; Knox, Alexander, A History of County Down: From the Most Remote Period to the Present Day (Dublin: Hodges, Foster, 1875), 26, 49Google Scholar; “The Dublin Letter,” Weekly Register, a Catholic society journal published in London, as reprinted in The Irish Monthly: A Magazine of General Literature (Dublin: M. H. Gill and Son, 1883), 634–36Google Scholar; MacArthur, William, “Medical History of the Famine,” in The Great Famine: Studies in Irish History, 1845–52, ed. Edwards, Dudley and Williams, T. Desmond (Dublin: Lilliput, 1994), 263312Google Scholar; and Linden, Robert, “Rostrevor (1850's–1950's),” Warrenpoint Historical Group Magazine, Autumn 1993, 23Google Scholar; and MacCabe's Directory, 90.

19. The site for the Presbyterian Church was purchased in 1850. The church, completed in 1854, still stands in Rostrevor. A plaque on Mary Street, the main road, marks the building that served as the Presbyterian meeting house until the 1850s (The Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory [Belfast: Belfast News-Letter Office: 1854], 714Google Scholar; and Crowe, , Village in Seven Hills, 3750Google Scholar). On Reverend Morgan's role in the founding of Rostrevor's Presbyterian Church, see Committee Meeting Minutes, Rostrevor Presbyterian Church Records (Parish of Killbroney), in PRONI (MIC 1P/260/C1–E6). Griffith's General Valuation of Rateable Property in Ireland: Union ofKilkeel: Valuation of the Several Tenements Comprised in the Above-named Union: Situated in the County of Down (Dublin: Alexander Thom and Sons, 1863)Google Scholar places Morgan at the manse. He is listed as the church's minister in The Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory from 1854 until 1910, the year following his death, although committee meeting minutes suggest that he played less of a role in the daily functions of the church beginning about 1901. This is corroborated by the 1901 census that shows Morgan no longer in the manse but in a residence on the outskirts of town (see 1901 Census, in PRONI [MIC 354/3/45]). On his death by “senile decay,” see Certified Copy of Entry in the Register Book of Deaths, in Irish Land Commission Documents, in PRONI (LR1/1043), and his wife's will and codicils (Will of Mary Morgan [404], Probate in Belfast, July 27, 1910, in PRONI).

20. Born to Thomas Morgan and Mary Pringle on September 10, 1857, Mary was baptized on October 11, 1857. Each of her seven siblings was also born in Rostrevor and baptized at the Presbyterian church. Their names and birth years are as follows: Charlotte Esther (1859), William Pringle (1861), Rebecca Harriot (1863), Harriet Gayer (1864), Maria (1866), Eva (1968), and James Gayer (1969) (see Baptismal Lists, Rostrevor Presbyterian Church Records, in PRONI [MIC IP/260/A1–B4]).

21. Ireland was the only European country to sustain constant population decline between 1871 and 1914. During that period, half of all children born on the island emigrated (Bodnar, , Transplanted, 46, 1718Google Scholar; Lees, Lynn H., Exiles of Erin: Irish Migrants in Victorian London [Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979], ch. 1Google Scholar; Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 346, 353456Google Scholar; and Hoerder, , Labor Migration, 19Google Scholar).

22. Emily Boyle, “‘Linenopolis’: The Rise of the Textile Industry,” Robin Sweetnam, “The Development of the Port,” Fred Heatley, “Community Relations and the Religious Geography, 1800–1886,” Paul Bew, “Politics and the Rise of the Skilled Working Man,” and Clarkson, Leslie, “The City and the Country,” all in Belfast: The Making of the City, 1800–1914, contrib. J. C. Beckett, W. A. Maguire, Emily Boyle, et al. (Belfast: Appletree, 1983)Google Scholar; Miller, Kerby, “Paddy's Paradox: Emigration To America in Irish Imagination and Rhetoric,” in Hoerder, and Rössler, , Distant MagnetsGoogle Scholar; and Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 413, 418–19Google Scholar.

23. Thomas, his brother, and two sisters were born to James Morgan and Charlotte Gayer in Lisburn, County Down. The fate of his younger brother, James, remains unclear (Baptismal Records, First Presbyterian Church of Lisburn, in PRONI [MIC IP/159/1]). Reverend Morgan also recorded their baptisms in the Fisherwick Church Records, Belfast (County Antrim), in PRONI (MIC IP/92/1). On Charlotte Gayer, see Mary's Memoir.

24. Francis J. Bigger, “Old Belfast Places of Worship: The Dying Sermon of the Reverend Dr. James Morgan,” ca. 1920, in PRONI (D/2095/27); Walker, Brian and Dixon, Hugh, In Belfast Town: Early Photographs from the Lawrence Collection, 1864–1880 (Belfast: Friar's Bush, 1984), 9Google Scholar; The Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory (Belfast: Belfast News-Letter Office, 18351836, 1843–44, 1854, 1865–66, 1870)Google Scholar; James Morgan, letter to Robert J. Tennent, April 8, 1852, in Robert J. Tennent Papers (Correspondence), in PRONI (D1748/G/472/5); James Morgan, “To the Electors of Belfast,” a cutting from a letter published in the Belfast Chronicle, June 9, 1841, in Tennent Papers (Correspondence), in PRONI (D1748/G/472/1B); Miller, David, “Presbyterianism and ‘Modernization’ in Ulster,” Past and Present 80 (1978): 6890CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Brooke, Peter, “Religious and Secular Thought, 1850–75,” in Walker, and Dixon, , In Belfast TownGoogle Scholar; and Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 88, 421Google Scholar.

25. Charlotte Morgan married the linen merchant Charles Finlay, of Charles Finlay, Brothers & Company, in 1847 at Fisherwick Church (Marriage Records, in PRONI [MIC IP/92/1]; see also The Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory [1870]). Maria Morgan married another merchant, Robert Carson, in 1868 at Rostrevor (PRONI [MIC 1P/260/A1–B4]).

26. Will of William Pringle of Tilledon (Senior), Extracts from Wills Deposited in the Irish Genealogical Research Society, 1681–1859, in PRONI (T/777/1), also listed in Extracts from Prerogative Wills and Grants Obtained from Rev. H. B. Swanzy, in PRONI (T/282/A); advertisement for the rent or sale of William Pringle Junior's tanning business upon his retirement clipped from the Newry Examiner, September 9, 1839, in The Groves Collection, in PRONI (T/808/12635); Will of William Pringle (Junior), in Copies of Documents Lodged as Title Deeds with the Land Purchase Commission, in PRONI (T810/11, p572); and “Townlands of Makenny, Doogery and Woodhill Abstract of Title” and “General Report of Surveyor,” in Irish Land Commission Documents, in PRONI (LR1/1043). The following two archival documents relate to the Ballynahone branch of the Pringle family, but mention Mary's father and grandfather: Genealogical History of the Pringle and Parke Families, 1840–1959, deposited by Rev. A. M. Parke, in PRONI (D/3000/117/1); and History of the Pringle Family by Margaret Pringle, 1836–ca. 1906, deposited by Mrs. Metcalfe, in PRONI (D/391/1). On the wages of clergymen, see Knox, , History of County Down, 156Google Scholar.

27. Landowners in Ireland: Return of Owners of Land of One Acre and Upwards (Dublin: Alexander Thorn, 1876)Google Scholar assigned 425 acres at a value of £324, 2s to Thomas Morgan. Land Commission Documents from 1905 total the Morgans' properties at slightly over 455 acres of a yearly worth of £350, 2s, though this amount reflects pre-1879 rates due to the Land Court's sub-free-market valuations (PRONI [LR1/1043]).

28. Miller, “Presbyterianism.”

29. Beckett, J. C., The Anglo-Irish Tradition (London: Faber and Faber, 1976), 9597, 103–7Google Scholar; Knox, , History of County Down, 27, 125, 156Google Scholar; and Brooke, , “Religion and Secular Thought,” in Walker, and Dixon, , In Belfast TownGoogle Scholar.

30. Mary did not mention her youngest sibling James in her memoir, and it seems likely that he died before reaching adulthood. On William, see also Will of Mary Morgan.

31. Picturesque Handbook, 34, 37; Newry Magazine as reprinted in Cordner-Pinkerton, , Open Window, 8687Google Scholar; Eccles, A., “The Railway in Warrenpoint,” Warrenpoint Historical Group Magazine, 02 1983, 13Google Scholar; Rostrevor as a Health Resort,” Irish Monthly 1891:640–46Google Scholar; and Crowe, , Village in Seven Hills, 37Google Scholar.

32. Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 3839Google Scholar; and Knox, , History of County Down, 362, 602Google Scholar.

33. Knox, , History of County Down, 4856Google Scholar. Knox derived his descriptions from his ethnological survey of the area and his statistics from the 1871 census.

34. Knox, , History of County Down, 53, 56, 72, 73, 100, 102, 602Google Scholar.

35. Memoir; Marriage Records, Rostrevor Presbyterian Church Records, in PRONI (MIC 1P/260/A1–B4); and Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 403, 406Google Scholar.

36. Memoir. Robert Anderson listed his occupation as a land agent on Mary's and Henry's marriage record, Rostrevor Presbyterian Church Records, in PRONI (MIC 1P/260/A1–B4), and his property amounted to £32 (Landowners in Ireland). On Baltinglass and Lord Aldborough, see Pigot and Company's City of Dublin and Hibernian Provincial Directory (London: J. Pigot, 08 12, 1824), 132Google Scholar. The Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory (1877) confirms Henry's position at the Bank of Ireland in Navan (18).

37. On Harriet Morgan's marriage to William Lambe, see Marriage Records, Rostrevor Presbyterian Church Records, in PRONI (MIC 1P/260/A1–B4), and Mary's letters in PRONI (T/3258/4/8, T/3258/4/11, and T3258/4/13). Charlotte and Rebecca still lived with their parents, unmarried, in 1901 (see 1901 Census, in PRONI [MIC 354/3/45]). Irish Land Commission documents show all four spin ster sisters, between the ages of 43 and 53, living in Bedford, England, in 1912 (“Allocation Schedule, 3 May 1912,” in PRONI [LR1/1043]). See Miller, Emigrants and Exiles, on Ireland's petite bourgeoisie (366) and on marriage practices (403–7).

38. Ranelagh, John O'Beirne, A Short History of Ireland (1983; rept. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 137–38, 149–51Google Scholar; and Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 388–90Google Scholar. On the sale of the Morgan's property under the Wyndham Act of 1903, see Memoir and Irish Land Commission Documents, in PRONI (LR/1/1043). The latter documents list no tenants as in arrears at the time of sale.

39. Mary's Memoir relates Violet's birth on July 9 in Listowel, County Kerry. As she recalled that Violet was a “happy healthy baby,” and considering the medical facilities that would have been available in the rural southwest of Ireland, it seems unlikely that the child was born and survived almost two months premature (General Index of Registered Births in Ireland, during the quarter ending March 31st, 1878, in PRONI [MIC 165/10]).

40. For a slightly later, but nevertheless applicable, study of sexual mores and the widespread practice of matchmaking in Ireland, see Arensberg, Conrad and Kimball, Solon, Family and Community in Ireland (1940; rept. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968), chs. 6 and 11Google Scholar; and Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 403, 406, 408–9Google Scholar.

41. Memoir. The Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory (1880) places Henry at the Bank of Ireland in Listowel.

42. Memoir.

43. Memoir. In her autobiography, Mary referred to the diaries she had kept, recollections of her sons' careers she saved, and her box of “treasures” that contained the keepsakes she collected over the years. Her letters from the United States indicate that she wrote several more to her parents and other friends in Ireland that have not been deposited in the archives.

44. Wyman, , Round-trip America, 2532Google Scholar; Miller, , Emigrants and Exiles, 353–4, 356Google Scholar; Taylor, , Distant Magnet, 6881Google Scholar; Macdonald, Norman, Canada: Immigration and Colonization, 1841–1903 (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1966), 3048Google Scholar; Kraut, Alan, The Huddled Masses: The Immigrant in American Society, 1880–1921 (Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1982), 1316Google Scholar; and Memoir.

45. Janet, and Philips, Peter, Victorians at Home and Away (London: Croom Helm, 1978), 2021Google Scholar; and Memoir.

46. Mary Anderson, letter to her mother from the S.S. Peruvian, August 28, 1884, in PRONI (T/3258/4/2); and Memoir.

47. Mary Anderson, letters to her mother from Wichita, October 20, 1884 (T/3258/4/5), and July 4, 1886 (T/3258/4/8); and letter to her mother from Blount Springs, Alabama, August 22, 1886 (T/3258/4/10), all in PRONI; and Kirkman, Wichita, 38. On populism, see, for example, Goodwyn, Lawrence, The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978)Google Scholar.

48. Mary Anderson, letters to her mother from Blount Springs, Alabama, August 22,1886 (T/3258/4/10), and September 2, 1886 (T/3258/4/11), in PRONI; and Memoir.

49. Ayers, Edward, The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 110 and chs. 3 and 5Google Scholar; Belissary, Constantine, “The Rise of Industry and the Industrial Spirit in Tennessee, 1865–1885,” Journal of Southern History 19 (05 1953): 193215CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Livingwood, James, Chattanooga: An Illustrated History (Woodland Hills, Calif: Windsor, 1980), chs. 1 and 7–9Google Scholar; and Memoir.

50. Govan, Gilbert and Livingwood, James, The Chattanooga Country, 1540–1976: From Tomahawks to TVA (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1977), 339–64Google Scholar.

51. Mary Anderson, letters to her mother from Blount Springs, Alabama, August 22, 1886 (T/3258/4/10), and September 2, 1886 (T/3258/4/11); letter to her mother from Chattanooga, October 28, 1886 (T/3258/4/12); and letter to her sister Harriet from Chattanooga (T/3258/4/13), all in PRONI; and Memoir. On back migrants' cultural choices in the United States and their alienation both in America and at home, see Wyman, Round-trip America, passim.

52. Ayers, , Promise of the New South, chs. 2 and 6Google Scholar; Livingwood, , Chattanooga, ch. 11Google Scholar; and letters cited in the previous note.

53. Ayers, , Promise of the New South, 105Google Scholar.

54. Miller, “Paddy's Paradox”; Hoerder, Dirk, “From Dreams to Possibilities: The Secularization of Hope and the Quest for Independence,” in Hoerder, and Rössler, , Distant MagnetsGoogle Scholar; and Memoir.

55. Hoerder, , “From Dreams to Possibilities,” in Hoerder, and Rössler, , Distant MagnetsGoogle Scholar; and Memoir.

56. From “The Emigrant's Farewell” (ca. 1885). Numerous collections of broadside ballads and Irish folk songs were published throughout the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. For example, see Hayes, Edward, ed., The Ballads of Ireland (London: A. Fullarton, 1856), vols. 1 and 2Google Scholar; MacCarthy, Denis, The Book of Irish Ballads (Dublin: James Duffy and Sons, 1869)Google Scholar; and Ailingham, William, Irish Songs and Poems (London: Reeves and Turner, 1890)Google Scholar.

57. A popular version of this song was recorded, perhaps for the first time, by John McCormack in 1913.

58. By Thomas Westendorf (ca. 1875).