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  • C. H. Gimingham (a1), D. H. N. Spence (a2) and A. Watson (a3)


It is an impossible task to identify a precise point in time which marks the start of an important departure in scientific thought. Every such development has its antecedents in earlier observations, ideas and interpretations. This applies as much to ecology as to any other branch of knowledge, if not more so since ecology at least in part is a synthetic discipline, depending for its progress on advances in other relevant aspects of biological and environmental science. Ecology is, perhaps, more an approach to biological enquiry than a ‘subject’ with clearly circumscribed information content and terms of reference. It is, however, a distinctive approach in that it concerns the interactions between organisms and the environments within which they habitually dwell, and their interactions among themselves in populations and communities.



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  • C. H. Gimingham (a1), D. H. N. Spence (a2) and A. Watson (a3)


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