Ambrose, A. M., Robbins, D. J. and DeEds, F. 1952. Comparative toxicities of quercetin and quercitrin. J. Am. Pharm. Ass. 41, 119–122.
Ames, B. Y. 1971. The detection of chemical mutagens with enteric bacteria. In Chemical Mutagens, Principles and Methods for their Detection, ed. Hollaender, A. Vol. 1, pp. 267–282. New York: Plenum Press.
Ames, B. N., McCann, J. and Yamasaki, E. 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Res. 31, 347–364.
Barber, G. D. 1969. Mutagenic and other radiomimetic properties of bracken. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wales, Bangor.
Bateman, A. J. 1966. Testing chemicals for mutagenicity in a mammal. Nature, Lond. 210, 205–206.
Bjeldanes, L. F. and Chang, G. W. 1977. Mutagenic activity of quercetin and related compounds. Science NY. 197, 577–578.
Braid, K. W. 1959. Bracken: A review of the literature. Commonwealth Bureau of Pastures and Field Crops, Mimeographed Publication No. 3, 1959.
Bralow, S. P. 1972. Experimental Carcinogenesis. Digestion 5, 290–310.
Brown, J. P. and Dietrich, P. S. 1979. Mutagenicity of plant flavonols in the Salmonella mammalian microsome test. Activation of flavonol glycosides by mixed glycosidases from rat cecal bacteria and other sources. Mutation Res. 66, 223–240.
Epstein, S. S. and Shafner, H. 1968. Chemical mutagens in the human environment. Nature, Lond. 219, 385–387.
Evans, I. A. 1968. The radiomimetic nature of bracken toxin. Cancer Res. 28, 2252–2261.
Evans, I. A. 1972. Bracken fern toxin. In Oncology 1970: Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress. Vol. V, Part A “Environmental Cancer”, pp. 178–195. Chicago, Illinois: Year Book Medical Publishers.
Evans, I. A. 1976. Relationship between bracken and cancer. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 73, nos. 1–3, 105–112.
Evans, I. A. 1979. Bracken carcinogenicity. Res. Vet. Sci. 26, 339–348.
Evans, I. A., Barber, G. D., Jones, R. S. and Leach, H. 1969. The carcinogenic activity of bracken. Rep. Br. Emp. Cancer Campn pp. 446—447.
Evans, I. A., Jones, R. S. and Mainwaring-Burton, R. 1972. Passage of bracken fern toxicity into milk. Nature, Lond. 237, 107–108.
Evans, I. A. and Mason, J. 1965. Carcinogenic activity of bracken. Nature, Lond. 208, 913–914.
Evans, I. A. and Osman, M. A. 1974. Carcinogenicity of bracken and shikimic acid. Nature, Lond. 250, No. 5464, 348–349.
Evans, I. A. and Widdop, B. 1966. Carcinogenic activity of bracken. Rep. Br. Emp. Cancer Campn p. 377.
Evans, I. A., Widdop, B. and Barber, G. D. 1967. Carcinogenic activity of bracken. Rep. Br. Emp. Cancer Campn p. 411.
Grimshaw, W. T. R. and Evans, I. A. 1980. The inter-relationship between bovine neoplasia and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). In Oncology Supplement: Scientific Foundations of Oncology, ed. Symington, T. and Carter, R. L. pp. 49–60. London: William Heinemann Medical Books.
Hall, L. D. 1964. The conformations of cyclic compounds in solution. I. Shikimic Acid. J. Org. Chem. 29, 297–299.
Hasegawa, M. and Tateoka, T. 1960. Occurrence of shikimic acid in plant tissue, III. Seasonal variation of shikimic acid content. J. Jap. For. Soc. 42, 224–225.
Herrmann, K. 1976. Flavonols and flavones in food plants: a review. J. Fd Technol. 11, 433–448.
Hirono, I. 1979. Naturally-occurring carcinogenic substances. Gann Monogr. Cancer Res. 24, 85–102.
Hirono, I., Fushimi, K. and Matsubara, N. 1977. Carcinogenicity test of shikimic acid in rats. Toxic. Lett. 1, 9–10.
Hirono, I. Fushimi, K., Mori, H., Miwa, T. and Haga, M. 1973. Comparative study of carcinogenic activity in each part of bracken. J. Natn Cancer Inst. 50, 1367–1371.
Hirono, I., Sasaoka, I., Shibuya, C., Shimizu, M., Fushimi, K., Mori, H., Kato, K. and Haga, M. 1975. Natural carcinogenic products of plant origin. Gann Monogr. Cancer Res. 17, 205–217.
Hirono, I., Shibuya, C., Fushimi, K. and Haga, M. 1970. Studies on carcinogenic properties of bracken, Pteridium aquilinum. J. Natn Cancer Inst. 45, 179–188.
Hirono, I., Shibuya, C., Shimizu, M. and Fushimi, K. 1972. Carcinogenic activity of processed bracken used as human food. J. Natn Cancer Inst. 48, 1245–1250.
Hirono, I., Ushimaru, Y., Kato, K., Mori, H. and Sasaoka, I. 1978. Carcinogenicity of boiling water extract of bracken, Pteridium aquilinum. Gann 69, 383–388.
Hodge, W. H. 1973. Fern foods of Japan and the problem of toxicity. Am. Fern J. 63, no. 3, 77–80.
Ishii, K., Saito, T. and Sakatami, M. 1974. Histamine releasing action of acetone dried powder of bracken fern on the rat peritoneal mast cells. J. Fac. Agric. Tortori Univ. 9, 27–33.
Jarrett, W. F. H. 1981. Bracken and cancer. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 81B, 79–83.
Jones, R. S. 1974. Bracken Carcinogenesis. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wales, Bangor.
Kamon, S. and Hirayama, T. 1975. Epidemiology of cancer of the oesophagus in Miye, Nara and Wakayama Prefecture with special reference to the role of bracken fern. Proc. Jap. Cancer Ass. 34th Annual Meeting (Osaka), p. 211.
Kuhnau, J. 1976. The Flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. Wld Rev. Nutr. Diet. 24, 117–191.
Kuroyanagi, M., Fukuoka, M., Yoshihira, K. and Natori, S. 1974. Absolute configuration of pterosins, 1-indanone derivatives from bracken “Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum”. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 22(3), 723–726.
Lauren, P. 1965. The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 64, 31–49.
Leach, H. 1970. The chemical isolation of a toxic component of bracken. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. of Wales, Bangor.
Leach, H., Barber, G. D., Evans, I. A. and Evans, W. C. 1971. Isolation of an active principle from the bracken fern that is mutagenic, carcinogenic and lethal to mice on intraperitoneal injection. Biochem. J. 124, 13–14.
Morris, H. P., Wagner, B. P., Ray, F. E., Stewart, H. L. and Snell, K. C. 1962. Comparative carcinogenic effects of N,N′-2,7-fluorenylenebisacetamide by intraperitoneal and oral routes of administration to rats with particular reference to gastric carcinoma. J. Natn Cancer Inst. 29, 977–1011.
Munoz, M. and Connelly, R. 1971. Time trends of intestinal and diffuse types of gastric cancer in the United States. Int. J. Cancer 8, 158–164.
Munoz, N., Correa, P., Cuello, C. and Duque, E. 1968. Histological types of gastric carcinoma in high and low risk areas. Int. J. Cancer 3, 809–818.
Nakabayashi, T. 1955. Isolation of Astragalin and Isoquercitrin from bracken, Pteridium aquilinum. Bull. Agric. Chem. Soc. Japan 19, no. 2, 104–109.
Newberne, P. M. 1976. Biological effects of plant toxins and aflatoxins in rats. J. Natn Cancer Inst. 56, no. 3, 551–555.
Osman, M. A. 1974. The isolation and chemistry of bracken toxins. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wales, Bangor.
Pamukcu, A. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1979. Bracken fern, a natural urinary bladder and intestinal carcinogen.In Naturally Occurring Carcinogens-Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis, ed. Miller, E. C., Miller, J. A., Hirono, I., Sigimura, T. and Takayama, S., pp. 89–99. Baltimore: University Park Press.
Pamukcu, A. M., Erturk, E. and Bryan, G. T. 1977. Induction of urinary bladder and intestinal tumours in mice by feeding bracken fern. Ankara Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 24, 28–34.
Pamukcu, A. M., Erturk, E., Price, J. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1972. Lymphatic leukemia and pulmonary tumours in female Swiss mice fed bracken fern (Pteris aquilinum). Cancer Res. 32, 1442–1445.
Pamukcu, A. M., Erturk, E., Yalciner, S., Milli, U. and Bryan, G. T. 1978. Carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of milk from cows fed bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Cancer Res. 38, 1556–1560.
Pamukcu, A. M. and Price, J. M. 1969. Induction of urinary bladder cancer in rats by feeding bracken fern (Pteris aquilina). J. Natn Cancer Inst. 43, 275–281.
Pamukcu, A. M., Price, J. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1976. Naturally occurring and bracken-fern-induced bovine urinary bladder tumours. Vet. Pathol. 13, 110–122.
Pamukcu, A. M., Yalciner, S., Price, J. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1970a. Effects of the co-administration of thiamine on the incidence of urinary bladder carcinomas in rats fed bracken fern. Cancer Res. 30, 2671–2674.
Pamukcu, A. M., Price, J. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1970b. Assay of fractions of bracken fern (Pteris aquilina) for carcinogenic activity. Cancer Res. 30, 902–905.
Pamukcu, A. M., Wattenberg, L. W., Price, J. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1971a. Phenothiazine inhibition of intestinal and urinary bladder tumours induced in rats by bracken fern. J. Natn Cancer Inst. 47, 155–159.
Pamukcu, A. M., Price, J. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1971b. Altered urinary and intestinal carcinogenic activity of bracken fern in rats. Proc. Am. Ass. Cancer Res. 12, 7.
Pamukcu, A. M., Yalciner, S., Hatcher, J. F. and Bryan, G. T. 1980a. Quercetin a rat intestinal and bladder carcinogen present in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Cancer Res. 40, 3468–3472.
Pamukcu, A. M., Wang, C. T., Hatcher, J. and Bryan, G. T. 1980b. Oncogenicity of tannin from bracken ferns. J. Natn Cancer Inst. 65, no. 1, 131–136.
Parry, J. M. and Tippins, R. 1976. Personal communication.
Partington, M. and Bateman, A. J. 1964. Dominant lethal mutations induced in male mice by methyl methanesulphonate. Heredity, Lond. 19, 191–200.
Price, J. M. and Pamukcu, A. M. 1968. The induction of neoplasms of the urinary bladder of the cow and the small intestine of the rat by feeding bracken fern (Pteris aquilina). Cancer Res. 28, 2247–2251.
Prorok, J. H. 1978. Bracken derived morphogenic dyscrasias. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wales, Bangor.
Roberts, I. M., Shaw, D. S. and Evans, W. C. 1971. A T4 bacteriophage reversion test for the naturally occurring mutagen present in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Biochem. J. 124, 13.
Salmani, Al-, Adaay, M. H. 1980. Studies on plant derived teratogenicity and infertility. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wales, Bangor.
Segi, M. 1975. Tea-gruel as a possible factor for cancer of the oesophagus. Gann 66, 199–202.
Stewart, H. L. 1953. Experimental cancer of the alimentary tract. The physiopathology of cancer, pp. 3–45. New York: Harper & Row.
Sugimura, T. 1979. Naturally occurring genotoxic carcinogens. In Naturally Occurring Carcinogens—Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis, ed. Miller, E. C., Miller, J. A., Hirono, I., Sugimura, T. and Takayama, S., pp. 241–261. Baltimore: University Park Press.
Sugimura, T., Fujimura, S., Kogure, K., Baba, T., Saito, T., Nagao, M., Hosoi, H., Shimosato, Y. and Yokoshima, T. 1969. Production of adenocarcinomas in glandular stomach of experimental animals by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Gann Monogr. 8, 157–208.
Sugimura, T., Nagao, M., Matsushima, T., Yahagi, T., Seino, Y., Shirai, A., Sawamura, M., Natori, S., Yoshirhira, K., Fukuoka, M. and Kuroyanagi, M. 1977. Mutagenicity of flavone derivatives. Proc. Japan Acad. 53B, 194–197.
Sugimura, T., Sato, S., Naga, C M., Yahagi, T., Matsushima, T., Seino, Y., Takeuchi, M. and Kawachi, T. 1976. Overlapping of carcinomas and mutagens. Fundam. Cancer Prev., 6th Symp. Princess Takamatsu Cancer Res. Fund (1975), ed. Magee, P. N., pp. 191–215. University of Tokyo Press.
Takatori, K., Nakano, S., Magata, S., Okumura, K., Hirono, I. and Shimizu, M. 1972. Pterolactam, a new compound isolated from bracken. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 20(5), 1087.
Wang, C. Y., Pamukcu, A. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1973. Detection of carcinogenic activity in different extracts of bracken fern. Proc. Am. Ass. Cancer Res. 14, 12.
Wang, C. Y., Pamukcu, A. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1976a. Bracken fern as a naturally occurring carcinogen. In “Ecological Perspectives on Carcinogens and Cancer Control”, ed. Stock, C. C., Santamaria, L., Mariani, P. and Gorini, S. Med. Biol. Environ. 4, 565–572.
Wang, C. H., Chiu, C. W., Pamukcu, A. M. and Bryan, G. T. 1976b. Identification of carcinogenic tannin isolated from bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). J. Natn Cancer Inst. 56, 33–36.
Widdop, B. 1967. Separation and characterisation of various toxicological components of bracken. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wales, Bangor.
Wislocki, P. G., Miller, E. C., Miller, J. A., McCoy, E. C. and Rosenkran, H. S. 1977. Carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of safrole, 1′-hydroxysafrole, and some known or possible metabolites. Cancer Res. 37, 1883–1891.
Wogan, G. M., Busby, W. F. Jr., 1980. Naturally occurring carcinogens. In Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs (2nd edn), pp. 329–369. New York: Academic Press.
Won, O. H., Farman, J., Krishnan, M. H., Iyer, S. K. and Vuletin, C. 1978. Squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Am. J. Gastroent. 69, 594–598.
Yoshihira, K., Fukuoka, M., Kuroyanagi, M. and Natori, S. 1971. 1-Indanone derivatives from bracken, Pteridium aquilinam var. latinusculum. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 19(7), 1491–1495.
Yoshihira, K., Fukuoka, M., Kuroyanagi, M., Natori, S., Umeda, M., Morohishi, T., Enomoto, M. and Saito, M. 1978. Chemical and toxicological studies on bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum. I. Introduction, extraction and fractionation of constituents to, and toxicological studies including carcinogenicity tests. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 26(8), 2346–2364.