Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Environment of the Young Earth in the Perspective of An Young Sun

  • Vladimir S. Airapetian (a1)


Our Sun, a magnetically mild star, exhibits space weather in the form of magnetically driven solar explosive events (SEE) including solar flares, coronal mass ejections and energetic particle events. We use Kepler data and reconstruction of X-ray and UV emission from young solar-like stars to recover the frequency and energy fluxes from extreme events from active stars including the young Sun. Extreme SEEs from a magnetically active young Sun could significantly perturb the young Earth's magnetosphere, cause strong geomagnetic storms, initiate escape and introduce chemical changes in its lower atmosphere. I present our recent simulations results based on multi-dimensional multi-fluid hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic models of interactions of extreme CME and SEP events with magnetospheres and lower atmospheres of early Earth and exoplanets around active stars. We also discuss the implications of the impact of these effects on evolving habitability conditions of the early Earth and prebiotic chemistry introduced by space weather events at the early phase of evolution of our Sun.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Environment of the Young Earth in the Perspective of An Young Sun
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Environment of the Young Earth in the Perspective of An Young Sun
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Environment of the Young Earth in the Perspective of An Young Sun
      Available formats



Hide All
Abramov, O. & Mojzsis, S. J., 2009, Nature, 459, 419
Airapetian, V. S., Glocer, A., Khazanov, G. V., Loyd, R. O. P., France, Kevin et al., 2017a, ApJ Letters, 836, L3
Airapetian, V. S., Zank, G., Verkhodlyadova, O., Li, G., Gronoff, G. 2017b, in preparation.
Airapetian, V. S., Glocer, A., Gronoff, G. E., H/ebrard, E., Danchi, W. 2016, Nature Geoscience, DOI:10.1038/NGEO2719
Airapetian, V. & Usmanov, A., 2016, ApJ Let., 817, L24
Airapetian, V., Glocer, A., & Danchi, W. 2015, Proc. of the 18th Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, Lowell Observatory (9-13 June 2014) Eds: van Belle, G. & Harris, H. (eprint arXiv:1409.3833)
Aarnio, A. N., Stassun, K. G., Hughes, W. J., & McGregor, S. L., 2011, Sol.Phys., 268, 195
Thakur, N., Gopalswamy, N., Xie, H., Makela, P., Akijama, P., Davila, J. M., & Rickard, L. J., 2014, ApJLet, 790, L13
Birch, J. L. et al. 2016, Science, 352, id.aaf2939
Biggin, A. J., Strik, G. H. M. A., & Langereis, C. G., 2008, Nature Geoscience, 1, 395
Bell, E. A., Boehnke, P., Harrison, T.M. & Mao, W. L. 2015, PNAS, 112, 14, 518
Claire, M. W. et al. 2012, ApJ. 757, 95
Cohen, O., Drake, J. J., Glocer, A., Garraffo, C., Poppenhaeger, K., Bell, J. M., Ridley, A. J., Gombosi, T. I., 2014, ApJ, 790, 57
Garraffo, C., Drake, J. J., Cohen, O. 2016, A&A, 595, id.A110
Gomes, R., Levison, H. F., Tsiganis, K., & Morbidelli, A., 2005, Nature, 435, 466
de Zeeuw, D. L., Sazykin, S., Wolf, R. A., Gombosi, T. I., Ridley, A. J., Toth, G., 2004, JGR, 109, A12
Emslie, A. G. et al., 2012, ApJ, 759, 71
Glocer, A., Toth, G., Gombosi, T., & Welling, D., 2009, JGR., 114
Glocer, A., Kitamura, N., Tóth, G., & Gombosi, T., 2012, JGR., 117, A04318, doi: 10.1029/2011JA017136
Gopalswamy, N. 2011, First Asia-Pacific Solar Physics Meeting ASI Conference Series, 2011, Vol. 2, pp 2, Edited by Choudhuri, Arnab Rai & Banerjee, Dipankar
Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Thakur, N., Mäkelä, P., Xie, H., & Akiyama, S. 2016, ApJ, 833, Issue 2, article id. 216
Gough, D. O. 1981, Solar Phys. 74, 21
Gronoff, G. et al. 2014, Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 4844
Güdel, M, Guinan, E. F., & Skinner, S. L., 1997, ApJ, 483, 947
Kasting, J. F. 2010, Nature, 464, 687
Knipp, D. J., Pette, D. V., Lilcommons, L. M. et al. 2017, Space Weather, 15, doi:10.1002/20165W001567
Khazanov, G. 2011, Kinetic Theory of the Inner Magnetospheric Plasma, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Vol. 372. ISBN 978-1-4419-6796-1. Springer
Khazanov, G. V., Tripathi, A. K., Sibeck, D., Himwich, E., Glocer, A., & Singhal, R. P. 2015, JGR, 20, Issue 11, 9891
Kobayashi, K., Masuda, H., Ushi, K., Ohashi, A. Yamanashi, H. et al. 2001, Adv. Space Res. 27, No. 2, 207
Kobayashi, K., Aoki, R., Abe, H., Kebukawa, Y., Shibata, H., Yoshida, S., Fukuda, H., Kondo, K., Oguri, Y., & Airapetian, V. S. 2017, Astrobiology Science Conference 2017, Abstract #3 259
Kramar, M., Airapetian, V., & Lin, H. 2016, Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, Volume 3, id.25
Lammer, H., Kasting, J. F., Chassefiere Johnson, R. E., Kulikov, Y. N., & Fian, F., 2008, Space Sci. Rev., 139, 399
Land, C. & Feichter, J. 2003, JGR, 108, Issue D12, 10.1029/2002JD002543
Le, et al., 2016, GRL, 43, 2396
Love, J. J., 2012, GRL., 39, L10301
Loyd, R. O. P., France, Kevin, Youngblood, A., Schneider, C., Brown, A., Hu, R., Linsky, K., Froning, C. S., Redfield, S., Rugheimer, S., & Tian, F., 2016, ApJ, 824, 102
Maehara, H. et al. 2012, Nature, 485, 478
Miyake, F., Nagaya, K., Masuda, K., & Nakamura, T., 2012, Nature, 486, 240
Ngwira, C. M., Pulkkinen, A., Kuznetsova, M. M. & Glocer, A., 2014, JGR, 119, 4456
Nitta, N. V., Aschwanden, M. J., Freeland, S. L., Lemen, J. R., Wülser, J.-P., & Zarro, D. M., 2014, Sol. Phys., 289, 1257
Mikhail, & Sverjensky, 2014, Nature Geoscience, 7, 816
Mewaldt, R. A., Cohen, C. M. S., Labrador, A. W., Leske, R. A., Mason, G. M., Desai, M. I., Looper, M. D., Mazur, J. E., Selesnick, R. S., & Haggerty, D. K., 2005, JGR, 110, A09S18
Mironova, I. A. & Usoskin, I. G. 2014, Environ. Res. Lett., 9
Powell, K. G., Roe, P. L., Linde, T. J., Gombosi, T. I., & De Zeeuw, D. L., 1999, JCP, 154, 284
Pevtsov, A. A., Fisher, G. H., Acton, L. W., Longcope, D. W., Johns-Krull, C. M., Kankelborg, C. C., & Metcalf, T. R., 2003, ApJ, 589, 1387
Ramirez, R. M., Kopparapu, R., Zugger, M. E., Robinson, T. D., Freedman, , & Kasting, J. 2014, Nature Geoscience, 7, Issue 1, 59
Ramirez, R. M. 2016, Nature Geoscience, 9, Issue 6, 413
Ridley, A. J., Hansen, K. C., Tóth, G., de Zeeuw, D. L., Gombosi, T. I., & Powell, K. G., 2002, JGR, 107, 1290
Riley, P., Caplan, R. M., Giacalone, J., Lario, D., & Liu, Y., 2016, ApJ, 819, 57
Roberson, A. L., Roadt, J., Halevy, I., & Kasting, J. F., 2011, Geobiology, 9, 313
Rosing, M. T., Bird, D. K., Sleep, N. H. & Bjerrum, C. J. 2010, Nature, 464, 744
Sagan, C. & Mullen, G., 1972, Science, 177, 52
Saladino, R., Carota, E., Botta, G., Kapralov, M., Timoshenko, G. N., Rozanov, A. Y., Krasavin, E., & Ernesto Di Mauro, E. 2015, Publ. Nat. Acad. Sci., 112 (21), E2746
Schrijver, C. J., Kauristie, Kirst A., Alan, D., Denardini, C. M., Gibson, S. E., Glover, A., Gopalswamy, N., Grande, M., Hapgood, M., Heynderickx, D., & 16 coauthors, 2015, Advances in Space Res., 55, 2745
Shibayama, T., Maehara, H., Notsu, S., Notsu, Y., Nagao, T., Honda, S., Ishii, T. T., Nogami, D., & Shibata, K., 2013, ApJSS, 209, 5
Schrijver, C. J. & Title, A. M., 2013, ApJ, 619, 1077
Som, S. M., Buick, R., Hagadorn, J. W., Blake, T. S., Perreault, J. M., Harnmeijer, J. P., & Catling, D. C. 2016 Nature Geoscience, 9,448
Sterenborg, M. G., Cohen, O., Drake, J. J., & Gombosi, T. I. 2011, 116, A01217
Strangeway, R. J., Ergun, R. E., Su, Y.-J., Carlson, C. W., & Elphic, R. C. 2005, JGR, 110, Issue A3, CiteID A03221
Tarduno, J. A., Blackman, E. G., & Mamajek, E. E., 2014, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 233, 68
Tarduno, J. A., Cottrell, R. D., Watkeys, M. K., Hofmann, A., Doubrovine, P. V., Mamajek, E. E., Liu, D., Sibeck, D. G., Neukirch, L. P., & Usui, Y. 2010, Science, 327, Issue 5970, 1238
Tian, F., Kasting, J. F. Liu, H.-Li, & Roble, R. G. 2008, JGR, 113, Issue E5, CiteID E05008
Thomas, B. C., Melott, A. L., Arkenberg, K. R., & Snyder, B. R., 2013, Geoph. Res. Let, 40, 1237
Tsurutani, B. T., Gonzales, W. D., Lakhina, G. S. & Alex, S. 2003, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 1268
Tsurutani, B. T. & Lakhina, G. S., 2014, Geoph. Res. Let, 41, 287
Tu, L., Johnstone, C., Gudel, M., & Lammer, H. 2016, A&A, 577, L3
Vidotto, A. A., Gregory, S. G., Jardine, M., Donati, J. F., Petit, P. et al., 2014, NMRAS, 441, 2361
Yashiro, S. & Gopalswamy, N. 2009, in IAU Symp.257, Universal Geophysical Processes, ed. Gopalswamy, N. & Webb, D. F. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press), 233
Weimer, D. R., Mlynczak, M. G., Hunt, L. A., & Tobiska, W. K., 2015, JGR, 120, 5998
Wilde, S., Valley, J. W., Peck, W. H. & Graham, C. M., 2001, Nature, 409, 175
Wood, B. E., Müller, H-R, Zank, G. P., Linsky, J. L. & Redfield, S., 2005, ApJ, 628, L143
Zhao, Y., Wang, R., Lu, Q., Du, A., Yao, Z., & Wu, M. 2016, JGR, 121, Issue 11, 10,898
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see


The Environment of the Young Earth in the Perspective of An Young Sun

  • Vladimir S. Airapetian (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed