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The Many Faces of International Legalization

  • Kenneth W. Abbott (a1)


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1 The project is chaired by Dinah Shelton.

2 The Organizers of the project are Judith Goldstein, Miles Kahler, Robert Keohane and Anne-Marie Slaughter.

3 Abbott, Kenneth W., Elements of a Joint Discipline, 86 ASIL PROC. 167 (1992); Modern International Relations Theory: A Prospectus for International Lawyers, 14 Yale J. Int’l L. 335 (1989); Slaughter, Anne-Marie, International Law and International Relations Theory: A Dual Agenda, 87 AJIL 205 (1993).

4 See, e.g., Mearshimer, John, The False Promise of International Institutions, 19 Int’l Security 5 (1995).

5 Cooperation Under Anarchy (Kenneth A. Oye ed., 1986).

6 International Regimes (Stephen D. Krasner ed., 1983); Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony (1984).

7 Another interdisciplinary research project, this one organized by Harold Hongju Koh, is reviewing IR perspectives on international law and attempting to identify the unique contributions of legal rules and processes to international governance.

8 Abbott, Kenneth W. & Snidai, Duncan, Why States Act through Formal International Organizations, 42 J. Conflict Resol. 3 (1998)

9 See, e.g., Martha Finnemore, National Interests in International Society (1996); Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, And Political Change (Goldstein, Judith & Keohane, Robert O. eds., 1993 ); Wendt, Alex, Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics, 46 Int’l Org. 391 (1992).

10 “Contemporary Conceptions of Customary International Law,” Stephen J. Toope, Chair, Thursday April 2, 1998, 11:15 a.m.-12:45 p.m.

11 See, e.g., Sullivan, Kathleen, Foreword: The Justices of Rules and Standards, 106 Harv. L. Rev. 22 (1992); Kaplow, Louis, Rules versus Standards: An Economic Analysis, 42 Duke L. J. 557 (1992); Diver, Colin, The Optimal Precision of Administrative Rules, 93 Yale L. J. 65 (1983).

12 See supra note 8.

l3 Anne-Marie Slaughter has used the term infrastate actors to refer to agencies of national governments that enter into international agreements and form transnational networks to exchange information and coordinate regulation.

l4 Zaring, David, International Law by Other Means: The Twilight Existence of International Financial Regulatory Organizations, 33 Tex. Int’l L. J. 281 (1998).

15 Here, soft law is understood as a way station en route to hard law, but in a strategic sense.

16 See Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures, And International Institutions (Thomas Risse-Kappen ed., 1995).

17 An alternate set of strategies utilizes domestic institutions, including courts. See Koh, Harold, Transnational Legal Process, 75 Neb. L. Rev. (1996).


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