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Needs Assessment for Simulation Training for Prehospital Providers in Botswana

  • Nicolaus W. Glomb (a1), Adeola A. Kosoko (a2), Cara B. Doughty (a3), Marideth C. Rus (a3), Manish I. Shah (a3), Megan Cox (a4), Cafen Galapi (a5), Presley S. Parkes (a6), Shelley Kumar (a7) and Bushe Laba (a5)...



In June 2012, the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW; Gaborone, Botswana) initiated a national Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in response to significant morbidity and mortality associated with prehospital emergencies. The MOHW requested external expertise to train its developing workforce. Simulation-based training was planned to equip these health care providers with clinical knowledge, procedural skills, and communication techniques.


The objective of this study was to assess the educational needs of the pioneer Botswana MOHW EMS providers based on retrospective EMS logbook review and EMS provider feedback to guide development of a novel educational curriculum.


Data were abstracted from a representative sample of the Gaborone, Botswana MOHW EMS response log from 2013-2014 and were quantified into the five most common call types for both adults and children. Informal focus groups with health professionals and EMS staff, as well as surveys, were used to rank common response call types and self-perceived educational needs.


Based on 1,506 calls, the most common adult response calls were for obstetric emergencies, altered mental status, gastrointestinal/abdominal pain, trauma, gynecological emergencies, and cardiovascular and respiratory distress-related emergencies. The most common pediatric response calls were for respiratory distress, gastrointestinal complaints/dehydration, trauma and musculoskeletal injuries, newborn delivery, seizures, and toxic ingestion/exposure. The EMS providers identified these same chief complaints as priorities for training using the qualitative approach. A locally relevant, simulation-based curriculum for the Botswana MOHW EMS system was developed and implemented based on these data.


: Trauma, respiratory distress, gastrointestinal complaints, and puerperal/perinatal emergencies were common conditions for all age groups. Other age-specific conditions were also identified as educational needs based on epidemiologic data and provider feedback. This needs assessment may be useful when designing locally relevant EMS curricula in other low-income and middle-income countries.GlombNW, KosokoAA, DoughtyCB, RusMC, ShahMI, CoxM, GalapiC, ParkesPS, KumarS, LabaB.Needs Assessment for Simulation Training for Prehospital Providers in Botswana. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):621626.


Corresponding author

Correspondence: NW Glomb, MD, MPH UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital 550 16th Street #5153 Box 0632 San Francisco, California 94143 USA E-mail:


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Conflicts of interest/funding/disclosures: The authors have no conflicts of interest or financial disclosures to report. All funding for this training program was provided by a Texas Children’s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics Educational Award (Houston, Texas USA). All authors contributed to this manuscript and have approved the version submitted for publication.



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Supplementary materials

Glomb et al. supplementary material
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