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In situ analysis of LiFePO4 batteries: Signal extraction by multivariate analysis

  • Mark A. Rodriguez (a1), Mark H. Van Benthem (a1), David Ingersoll (a1), Sven C. Vogel (a2) and Helmut M. Reiche (a2)...


The electrochemical reaction behavior of a commercial Li-ion battery (LiFePO4-based cathode, graphite-based anode) has been measured via in situ neutron diffraction. A multivariate analysis was successfully applied to the neutron diffraction data set facilitating in the determination of Li bearing phases participating in the electrochemical reaction in both the anode and cathode as a function of state-of-charge (SOC). The analysis resulted in quantified phase fraction values for LiFePO4 and FePO4 cathode compounds as well as the identification of staging behavior of Li6, Li12, Li24, and graphite phases in the anode. An additional Li-graphite phase has also been tentatively identified during electrochemical cycling as LiC48 at conditions of ∼5% to 15% SOC.



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