Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Does Ordinary Portland Cement contain amorphous phase? A quantitative study using an external standard method

  • D. Jansen (a1), Ch. Stabler (a1), F. Goetz-Neunhoeffer (a1), S. Dittrich (a1) and J. Neubauer (a1)...

Abstract

A suitable external standard method which was first described by O’Connor and Raven (1988) (“Application of the Rietveld refinement procedure in assaying powdered mixtures,” Powder Diffr. 3, 2–6) was used to determine the quantitative phase composition of a commonly used Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The method was also applied in order to determine amorphous contents in OPC. Also investigated were the impact of atomic displacement parameters and the microstrain on the calculated amorphous content. The investigations yielded evidence that said parameters do indeed exert an influence on the calculated amorphous content. On the basis of the data produced we can conclude that the method used is entirely to be recommended for the examination of OPC. No significant amorphous content could be proven in the OPC used.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: djan@geol.uni-erlangen.de

References

Hide All
Brindley, G. W. (1945). “The effect of grain or particle size on x-ray reflections from mixed powders and alloys, considered in relation to the quantitative determination of crystalline substances by X-ray methods,” Philos. Mag.PMHABF 36, 347369.
Chung, F. H. (1974). “Quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of mixtures. II. Adiabatic principle of X-ray diffraction analysis of mixtures,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 7, 526531.10.1107/S0021889874010387
De La Torre, A. G. and Aranda, M. A. G. (2003). “Accuracy in Rietveld quantitative phase analysis of Portland cements,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 36, 11691176.10.1107/S002188980301375X
De La Torre, A. G., Bruque, S., and Aranda, M. A. G. (2001). “Rietveld quantitative amorphous content analysis,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 34, 196202.10.1107/S0021889801002485
De La Torre, A. G., Bruque, S., Campo, J., and Aranda, M. A. G. (2002). “The superstructure of C3S from synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction and its role in quantitative phase analysis,” Cem. Concr. Res.CCNRAI 32, 13471356.10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00796-2
Dinnebier, R. E. and Billinge, S. J. L. (2008). Powder Diffraction, Theory and Practice (The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge).10.1039/9781847558237
Fischer, R. X. and Tillmanns, E. (1988). “The equivalent isotropic displacement factor,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun.ACSCEE 44, 775776.10.1107/S0108270187012745
Gutteridge, W. A. (1979). “On the dissolution of the interstitial phases in Portland cement,” Cem. Concr. Res.CCNRAI 9, 319324.10.1016/0008-8846(79)90124-8
Han, K. S., Glasser, F. P., and Gard, J. A. (1980). “Studies of the crystallization of the liquid phase in Portland clinker,” Cem. Concr. Res.CCNRAI 10, 443448.10.1016/0008-8846(80)90120-9
Hermann, H. and Ermrich, M. (1989). “Microabsorption correction of X-ray intensities diffracted by multiphase powder specimens,” Powder Diffr.PODIE2 4, 189195.
Hesse, Ch., Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F., Neubauer, J., Braeu, M., and Gaeberlein, P. (2009). “Quantitative in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis of early hydration of white cement,” Powder Diffr.PODIE2 24, 112115.10.1154/1.3120603
Hill, R. J. and Howard, C. J. (1987). “Quantitative phase analysis from neutron powder diffraction data using the Rietveld method,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 20, 467474.10.1107/S0021889887086199
Hubbard, C. R., Evans, E. H., and Smith, D. K. (1976). “The reference intensity ration I/Ic for computer simulated powder patterns,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 9, 169174.10.1107/S0021889876010807
International Union for Crystallography. (2004). International Tables for Crystallography, Volume C: Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Tables, 3rd ed., edited by Prince, E. (Kluwer, Boston).
Jost, K. H., Ziemer, B., and Seydel, R. (1977). “Redetermination of the structure of β-dicalcium silicate,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem.ACBCAR 33, 16961700.10.1107/S0567740877006918
Jupe, A. C., Cockcroft, J. K., Barnes, P., Colston, S. L., Sankar, G., and Hall, C. (2001). “The site occupancy of Mg in the brownmillerite structure and its effect on hydration properties: An X-ray/neutron diffraction and EXAFS study,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 34, 5561.10.1107/S0021889800016095
Kirfel, A. and Will, G. (1980). “Charge density in anhydrite CaSO4, from X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem.ACBCAR 36, 28812890.10.1107/S0567740880010461
Klug, H. P. and Alexander, L. E. (1974). X-Ray Diffraction Procedures, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York).
Kolesov, B. A., Geiger, C. A., and Armbruster, T. (2001). “The dynamic properties of zircon studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Mineral.EJMIER 13, 939948.10.1127/0935-1221/2001/0013-0939
Le Page, Y. and Donnay, G. (1976). “Refinement of the crystal structure of low-quartz,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem.ACBCAR 32, 24562459.10.1107/S0567740876007966
Le Saoût, G., Füllmann, T., Kocaba, V., and Scrivener, K. L. (2007). “Quantitative study of cementitious materials by X-ray diffraction. Rietveld analysis using an external standard,” Proceedings of the 12th ICCC, Montreal, Canada, 08–13 July 2007.
Le Saoût, G., Kocaba, V., and Scrivener, K. (2011). “Application of the Rietveld method to the analysis of anhydrous cement,” Cem. Concr. Res.CCNRAI 41, 133148.10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.10.003
Madsen, I. C., Scarlett, N. V. Y., Cranswick, L. M. D., and Lwin, T. (2001). “Outcomes of the International Union of Crystallography Commission on Powder Diffraction Round Robin on quantitative phase analysis: Samples 1a to 1h,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 34, 409426.10.1107/S0021889801007476
Maki, I. (1979). “Mechanism of glass formation in Portland cement clinker,” Cem. Concr. Res.CCNRAI 9, 757763.10.1016/0008-8846(79)90071-1
Man Suherman, P., van Riessen, A., O’Connor, B., Li, D., Bolton, D., and Fairhurst, H. (2002). “Determination of amorphous phase levels in Portland cement clinker,” Powder Diffr.PODIE2 17, 178185.10.1154/1.1471518
Maslen, E. N., Streltsov, V. A., and Streltsova, N. R. (1995). “Electron density and optical anisotropy in rhombohedral carbonates. III. Synchroton X-ray studies of CaCO3, MgCO3 and MgCO3,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Sci.ASBSDK 51, 929939.10.1107/S0108768195006434
Mondal, P. and Jeffery, J. W. (1975). “The crystal structure of tricalcium aluminate, Ca3Al2O6,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem.ACBCAR 31, 689697.10.1107/S0567740875003639
Mueller, R. (2001). “Stabilisierung verschiedener dicalciumsilikat-modifikationen durch den einbau von phosphat: Synthese, Rietveld-analyse, kalorimetrie,“ Diploma thesis, University of Erlangen.
Mursic, Z., Vogt, T., Boysen, H., and Frey, F. (1992). “Single-crystal neutron diffraction study of metamict zircon up to 2000 K,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 25, 519523.10.1107/S0021889892002577
O’Connor, B. H. and Raven, M. D. (1988). “Application of the Rietveld refinement procedure in assaying powdered mixtures,” Powder Diffr.PODIE2 3, 26.
Ojima, K., Hishihata, Y., and Sawada, A. (1995). “Structure of potassium sulfate at temperatures from 296 K down to 15 K,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Sci.ASBSDK 51, 287293.10.1107/S0108768194013327
Pedersen, B. F. (1982). “Neutron diffraction refinement of the structure of gypsum,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem.ACBCAR 38, 10741077.10.1107/S0567740882004993
Rietveld, H. M. (1969). “A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures,” J. Appl. Crystallogr.JACGAR 2, 6571.10.1107/S0021889869006558
Robinson, K., Gibbs, V., and Ribbe, P. H. (1971). “The structure of zircon: A comparison with garnet,” Am. Mineral.AMMIAY 56, 782791.
Scrivener, K. L., Füllmann, T., Gallucci, E., Walenta, G., and Bermejo, E. (2004). “Quantitative study of Portland cement hydration by X-ray diffraction/Rietveld analysis and independent methods,” Cem. Concr. Res.CCNRAI 34, 15411547.10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.04.014
Struble, L. J. (1985). “The effect of water on maleic acid and salicylic acid extractions,” Cem. Concr. Res.CCNRAI 15, 631636.10.1016/0008-8846(85)90062-6
Takéuchi, Y. and Nishi, F. (1980). “Crystal-chemical characterization of the Al2O3–Na2O solid-solution series,” Z. Kristallogr.ZEKRDZ 152, 259307.10.1524/zkri.1980.152.3-4.259
Taylor, H. F. W. (1997). Cement Chemistry (Thomas Telford, London).10.1680/cc.25929
Többens, D. M., Stuesser, N., Knorr, K., Mayer, H. M., and Lampert, G. (2001). “The new high-resolution neutron powder diffractometer at the Berlin neutron scattering center,” Mater. Sci. ForumMSFOEP 378–381, 288293.10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.378-381.288
Trueblood, K. N., Bürgi, H. -B., Burzlaff, H., Dunitz, J. D., Gramaccioli, C. M., Schulz, H. H., Shmueli, U., and Abrahams, S. C. (1996). “Atomic displacement parameter nomenclature report of a subcommittee on atomic displacement parameter nomenclature,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Found. Crystallogr.ACACEQ 52, 770781.10.1107/S0108767396005697
Weiss, H. and Bräu, M. F. (2009). “How much water does calcined gypsum contain?,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.ACIEF5 48, 35203524.10.1002/anie.200900726
Westphal, T., Füllmann, T., and Pöllmann, H. (2009). “Rietveld quantification of amorphous portions with an internal standard-mathematical consequences of the experimental approach,” Powder Diffr.PODIE2 24, 239243.10.1154/1.3187828
Whitfield, P. S. and Mitchell, L. D. (2003). “Quantitative Rietveld analysis of the amorphous content in cements and clinkers,” J. Mater. Sci.JMTSAS 38, 44154421.10.1023/A:1026363906432
Young, R. A. (1995). The Rietveld Method (Oxford University Press, New York).

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Does Ordinary Portland Cement contain amorphous phase? A quantitative study using an external standard method

  • D. Jansen (a1), Ch. Stabler (a1), F. Goetz-Neunhoeffer (a1), S. Dittrich (a1) and J. Neubauer (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.