1.Figueredo, A. J.et al., “A sequential canonical cascade model of social biogeography: Plants, parasites, and people,” Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2017, 3(1): 40–61.
2.Sober, E., The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984).
3.Wilson, D. S., “A theory of group selection,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1975, 72(1): 143–146.
4.Wilson, D. S. and Sober, E., “Reintroducing group selection to the human behavioral sciences,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1994, 17(4): 585–608.
5.Wilson, D. S. and Wilson, E. O., “Rethinking the theoretical foundation of sociobiology,” Quarterly Review of Biology, 2007, 82(4): 327–348.
6.Wynne-Edwards, V. C., Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (London: Oliver and Boyd, 1962).
7.Richerson, P.et al., “Cultural group selection follows Darwin’s classic syllogism for the operation of selection,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2016, 39: e58.
8.Hamilton, W. D., “Selfish and spiteful behaviour in an evolutionary model,” Nature, 1970, 228(5277): 1218.
9.Fernandes, H. B. F., Zerbe, J., Peñaherrera-Aguire, M., and Figueredo, A. J., “Humans: Between-group conflicts,” in Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, T. K. Shackelford and V. A. Weekes-Shackelford, eds. (New York: Springer, 2018), in press.
10.McDonald, M. M., Navarrete, C. D., and Vugt, M. Van, “Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: The male warrior hypothesis,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2012, 367(1589): 670–679.
11.Preuschoft, S. and van Schaik, C. P., “Dominance and communication: Conflict management in various social setting,” in Natural Conflict Resolution, F. Aureli and de, , eds. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), pp. 77–105.
12.Ruffin, R., “David Ricardo’s discovery of comparative advantage” History of Political Economy, 2002, 34(4): 727–748.
13.Peñaherrera-Aguire, M., Fernandes, H. B. F., and Figueredo, A. J., “Primates: Between-group conflicts,” in Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science, T. K. Shackelford and V. A. Weekes-Shackelford, eds. (New York: Springer, 2018), in press.
14.Wrangham, R. W., “Evolution of coalitionary killing,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1999, 110(S29): 1–30.
15.Patton, J. Q., “Reciprocal altruism and warfare: A case from the Ecuadorian Amazon,” in Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, L. Cronk, N. A. Chagnon, and W. Irons, eds. (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2000), pp. 417–436.
16.Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J., “Punishment allows the evolution of cooperation (or anything else) in sizable groups,” Ethology and Sociobiology, 1992, 13(3): 171–195.
17.Soltis, J., Boyd, R., and Richerson, P. J., “Can group-functional behaviors evolve by cultural group selection? An empirical test,” Current Anthropology, 1995, 36(3): 473–494.
18.Richerson, Peteret al., “Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2016, 39: e30.
19.Kirkegaard, E. O. W.et al., “Biogeographic ancestry, cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes,” Psych, 2019, 1(1): 1–25, https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010001.
20.Okasha, S., Evolution and the Levels of Selection (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).
21.Damuth, J. and Heisler, I. L., “Alternative formulations of multilevel selection,” Biology and Philosophy, 1988, 3(4): 407–430.
22.Heisler, I. L. and Damuth, J., “A method for analyzing selection in hierarchically structured populations,” The American Naturalist, 1987, 130(4): 582–602.10.1086/284732
23.MacArthur, R. H. and Wilson, E. O., The Theory of Island Biogeography, vol. 1 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).
24.Ellis, B. J.et al., “Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk,” Human Nature, 2009, 20(2): 204–268.
25.Okasha, S., “Multilevel selection and the major transitions in evolution,” Philosophy of Science, 2005, 72(5): 1013–1025.
26.Woodley, M. A. of Menieet al., The Rhythm of the West: A Biohistory of the Modern Era, AD 1600 to Present (Washington, DC: Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Monograph Series, Number 37, 2017).
27.Figueredo, A. J.et al., “Multiple successful tests of the strategic differentiation-integration effort (SD-IE) hypothesis,” Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2013, 7(4): 361–381.
28.Woodley, M. A. and Fernandes, H. B. F., “Strategic and cognitive differentiation-integration effort in a study of 76 countries,” Personality and Individual Differences, 2014, 57: 3–7.
29.Ricardo, D., On the Principles of Political Economy, and Taxation (London: John Murray, 1817).
30.Hutchinson, G. E., “Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals?,” The American Naturalist, 1959, 93(870): 145–159.
31.Abrams, P., “The theory of limiting similarity,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1983, 14: 359–376.
32.Figueredo, A. J.et al., “War and peace: A diachronic social biogeography of life history strategy and between-group relations in two western European populations,” Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 2018, 10(1): 36–75.
33.Bolt, J.et al., “Rebasing ‘Maddison’: New income comparisons and the shape of long-run economic development,” GGDC Research Memorandum 174, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen, 2018.
34.Sarkees, M. R. and Wayman, F., Resort to War: 1816–2007 (Washington DC: CQ Press, 2010).
39.Michel, J.-B.et al., “Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books,” Science, 2011, 331(6014): 176–182.10.1126/science.1199644
40.Gorsuch, R. L., Factor Analysis, 2nd ed. (Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983).
41.Figueredo, A. J.et al., “Multivariate modeling of missing data within and across assessment waves,” Addiction, 2000, 95(Suppl. 3): 361–380.
42.Hertler, S. C.et al., Life History Evolution: A Biological Meta-Theory for the Social Sciences (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018).10.1007/978-3-319-90125-1
43.Darwin, C., The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (London: John Murray, 1871).
44.Sherman, R. A., Figueredo, A. J., and Funder, D. C., “The behavioral correlates of overall and distinctive life history strategy,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013, 105(5): 873–88.
45.Gat, A., War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).
46.Keeley, L. H., War before Civilization (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
47.Rosenbaum, S., Vecellio, V., and Stoinski, T., “Observations of severe and lethal coalitionary attacks in wild mountain gorillas,” Scientific Reports, 2016, 6: 37018.
48.Wilson, M. L., “Chimpanzees, warfare and the invention of peace,” in War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views, D. P. Fry, ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 361–388.
49.Estabrook, V., “Violence and warfare in the European Mesolithic and Paleolithic,” in Violence and Warfare among Hunter-Gatherers, M. W. Allen and T. L. Jones, eds. (New York: Routledge, 2016), pp. 49–69.10.4324/9781315415970-3
50.Guilaine, J. and Zammit, , The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory. (Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2008).
51.Lahr, M. M.et al., “Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya,” Nature, 2016, 529(7586): 394–398.10.1038/nature16477
52.LeBlanc, S. A., Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003).
53.Wrangham, R. W., Wilson, M. L., and Muller, M. N., “Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans,” Primates, 2006, 47(1): 14–26.
54.Horan, R. D., Bulte, E., and Shogren, J. F., “How trade saved humanity from biological exclusion: An economic theory of Neanderthal extinction,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2005, 58(1): 1–29.
55.Ball, W., Rome in the East: Transformation of an Empire, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2016).
56.Pollins, B. M., “Conflict, cooperation, and commerce: The effect of international political interactions on bilateral trade flows,” American Journal of Political Science, 1989, 33(3): 737–761.
57.Keenan, P. A. and Carnevale, P. J. D., “Positive effects of within‐group cooperation on between‐group negotiation,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1989, 19(12 Pt. 2): 977–992.
58.Puurtinen, M. and Mappes, T., “Between-group competition and human cooperation,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 2009, 276(1655): 355–360.
59.Hutchinson, E. G., A Treatise on Limnology (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1957).
60.Zhang, D. D.et al., “The causality analysis of climate change and large-scale human crisis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108(42): 17296–17301.10.1073/pnas.1104268108
61.Fernandes, H. B. F.et al., “Regional relations between phenotypic and economic diversity and their ecological predictors in Italy, Spain and Mexico,” Mankind Quarterly, 2017, 57(3): 355–374.
62.Bowles, S., Choi, J.-K., and Hopfensitz, A., “The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2003, 223(2): 135–147.
63.Hauert, C. and Imhof, L. A., “Evolutionary games in deme structured, finite populations,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2012, 299: 106–112.
64.Nuismer, S. L., Thompson, J. N., and Gomulkiewicz, R., “Gene flow and geographically structured coevolution,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 1999, 266(1419): 605–609.
65.Thompson, J. N., “Specific hypotheses on the geographic mosaic of coevolution,” The American Naturalist, 1999, 153(S5): S1–S14.
66.Wilson, D. S., “Structured demes and the evolution of group-advantageous traits,” The American Naturalist, 1977, 111(977): 157–185.