Aldrich, J. H., and McKelvey, R. D.
1977. “A Method of Scaling with Applications to the 1968 and 1972 Presidential Elections.” American Political Science Review
Alvarez, R. M.
1998. Information and Elections, Revised to Include the 1996 Presidential Election. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Alvarez, R. M., Franklin, C. H.
1994. “Uncertainty and Political Perceptions.” Journal of Politics
Alvarez, R. M., and Nagler, J.
1995. “Economics, Issues and the Perot Candidacy: Voter Choice in the 1992 Presidential Election.” American Journal of Political Science
Alvarez, R. M., Nagler, J.
1998a. “Economics, Entitlements and Social Issues: Voter Choice in the 1996 Presidential Election.” American Journal of Political Science
Alvarez, R. M., Nagler, J.
1998b. “When Politics and Models Collide: Estimating Models of Multiparty Elections.” American Journal of Political Science
Alvarez, R. M., Nagler, J., Willette, J.
2000. “Measuring the Relative Impact of Issues and the Economy in Democratic Elections.” Electoral Studies
Anker, H., Oppenhuis, E. V.
1997. Dutch Parliamentary Election Study, 1994. [Computer file]. Amsterdam: Dutch Electoral Research Foundation and (SKON)/Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) [producers], 1995. Amsterdam: Steinmetz Archive/Ann Arbor: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1997.
Bartels, L. M.
1986. “Issue Voting Under Uncertainty: An Empirical Test.” American Journal of Political Science
Bartolini, S., Mair, P.
1990. Identity, Competition, and Electoral Availability: The Stabilization of European Electorates 1885–1985. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brady, H. E., Ansolabehere, S.
1989. “The Nature of Utility Functions in Mass Publics.” American Political Science Review
Budge, I., Robertson, D., and Hearl, D., eds. 1987. Ideology, Strategy and Party Change: Spatial Analyses of Postwar Election Programmes in 19 Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., Miller, W. E., Stokes, D. E.
1964. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.
Castles, F., and Mair, P.
1984. “Left-Right Political Scales: Some ‘Expert’ Judgements.” European Journal of Political Research
Davis, O. A., Hinich, M. J.
1966. “A Model of Policy Formation in Democratic Society.” In Mathematical Applications in the Social Sciences, ed. Bernd, J. L.
Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, pp. 175–208.
Davis, O. A., and Hinich, M. J., Ordeshook, P.
1970. “An Expository Development of a Mathematical Model of the Electoral Process.” American Political Science Review
1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
Enelow, J., Hinich, M.
1984. The Spatial Theory of Voting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Franklin, C. H.
1991. “Eschewing Obfuscation? Campaigns and the Perceptions of U.S. Senate Incumbents.” American Political Science Review
Gabel, Matthew J., and Huber, John. 2000. “Putting Parties in Their Place: Inferring Party Left-Right Ideological Positions from Party Manifestos Data.” American Journal of Political Science
Heath, A., Jowell, R., and Curtice, J. K.
1995. British Election Study: Cross-Section 1987. [Computer file]. London: Social and Community Planning Research/Oxford: A. Heath et al., Oxford University [producers], 1989. Colchester, England: ESRC Data Archive/Ann Arbor: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Science Research [distributor], 1995.
Holland, Paul W., and Wainer, Howard, eds. 1993. Differential Item Functioning. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Johnston, R., and Blais, A., Brady, H., Gidengil, E., Nevitte, N.
1995. Canadian Election Study, 1993: Incorporating the 1992 Referendum Survey on the Charlottetown Accord. [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Vancouver: Richard Johnston, University of British Columbia/Montreal: Andre Blais, University of Montreal/Berkeley, CA: Henry Brady, University of California/Montreal: Elisabeth Gidengil, McGill University/Calgary, Alberta: Neil Nevitte, University of Calgary [producers], 1995. Ann Arbor: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1995.
Key, V. O.
1966. The Responsible Electorate. New York: Vintage.
Kim, Hee-min, Fording, Richard C.
2002. “Extending Party Estimates to Governments and Electors.” In Mapping Policy Preferences, eds. Budge, Ian et al. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 157–178.
King, Gary, Murray, Christopher J. L., Salomon, Joshua A., Tandon, Ajay. 2003. “Enhancing the Validity and Cross-Cultural Comparability of Measurement in Survey Research.” Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University.
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter. 1995. “Party Positions and Voter Orientations.” In Citizens and the State, eds. Klingemann, Hans-Dieter and Fuchs, Dieter. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 183–205.
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Wessels, Bernhard. 2002. “Sincere Voting in Different Electoral Systems”. Unpublished manuscript, Wissenschaftzentrum Berlin fur Sozialforschung.
Laver, Michael, and Benoit, Kenneth, Garry, John. 2003. “Extracting Policy Positions from Political Texts Using Words as Data.” American Political Science Review
Laver, M., and Hunt, W. B.
1992. Policy and Party Competition. New York: Routledge.
1996. “Party Systems and Structures of Competition.” In Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective, eds. LeDuc, L., Niemi, R. G., and Norris, P.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 83–106.
Nie, N. H., Verba, S., and Petrocik, J. R.
1979. The Changing American Voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Page, B. I.
1976. “The Theory of Political Ambiguity.” American Political Science Review
Page, B. I.
1978. Choices and Echoes in Presidential Elections. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Page, B. I., and Brody, R. A.
1972. “Policy Voting and the Electoral Process: The Vietnam War Issue.” American Political Science Review
Palfrey, T. R., Poole, K. T.
1987. “The Relationship between Information, Ideology, and Voting Behavior.” American Journal of Political Science
1998. “Recovering a Basic Space From a Set of Issue Scales.” American Journal of Political Science
Rosenstone, S. J., Kinder, D. R., Miller, W. E., and the National Election Studies. 2000. American National Election Study, 1996: Pre- and Post-Election Survey. [Computer file]. 4th version. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies [producer], 1999. Ann Arbor: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000.
Sani, G., Sartori, G.
1983. “Polarization, Fragmentation and Competition in Western Democracies.” In Western European Party Systems: Continuity and Change, eds. Daalder, H. and Mair, P.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. 307–340.
1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shepsle, K. A.
1972. “The Strategy of Ambiguity: Uncertainty and Electoral Competition.” American Political Science Review
Van Der Eijk, C.
2001. “Measuring Agreement in Ordered Rating Scales.” Quality and Quantity
1996. Political Parties and Party Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.