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The role of air pollution in Arctic planning and development

  • Carl S. Benson

Extract

The very low population densities in the Arctic and sub-Arctic, and the apparently rugged physical environment, tend to minimize one's conception of the possible effect of man's activities in these regions. In fact, of course, populations concentrate in fewer centres than in warmer regions: more than half the population of the Yukon Territory lives within 30 km of Whitehorse, and more than half Alaska's is associated with Fairbanks and Anchorage. The apparent ruggedness is offset by slow regenerative processes in areas disturbed by man. The presence of the impermeable permafrost layer over much of the Arctic and sub-Arctic prevents the dispersal of man's waste products and facilitates pollution of water and land. The air itself over centres of population is often exceptionally vulnerable to pollution.

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Copyright

References

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Benson, C. S. 1965. Ice fog: low temperature air pollution defined with Fairbanks Alaska as type locality. Geophysical Institute Report, UAG R-173, University of Alaska. Also: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Research Report 121.
Benson, C. S. 1969. Ice fog. Weather (in press).
Benson, C. S.and Rogers, G. W. 1966. Alaskan air pollution—the nature of ice fog and its development and settlement implications. Proceedings of the 16th Alaskan Science Conference, Juneau, Alaska 1965. Alaska Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, p 233–45.
Bowling, S. A., Ohtake, T. and Benson, C. S. 1968. Winter pressure systems and ice fog in Fairbanks, Alaska. Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol 7, No 6, p 961–68.
Eagan, C. J. and Benson, C. S. 1966. Pollutants associated with ice fog and their removal from inhaled air. Proceedings of the Fourth International Biometeorological Congress, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 29 August— 2 September 1966.
Gotaas, Y. and Benson, C. S. 1965. The effect of suspended ice crystals on radiative cooling. Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol 4, No 4, p 446–53.
Haagen-Smith, A. J. 1952. Chemistry and physiology of Los Angeles smog. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol 44, p 1342–46.
Junge, C. E. 1963, Air chemistry and radioactivity. New York, Academic Press.
Kay, K. 1968. A look at the future of hazardous contamination of the circumpolar environment. Archives of Environmental Health, Vol 17, No 4, p 653–61.
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Ohtake, T. 1967. Alaskan ice fog. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Physics of Snow and Ice (Sappiro, Hokkaido University), Part I, p 105–18.
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Pack, D. H. 1964. Meteorology of air pollution. Science, Vol 146, No 3648, p 1119–28.
Robinson, E. andBell, G. B. 1956. Low-level temperature structure under Alaskan ice fog conditions. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol 37, p 506–13.
Robinson, E., Thuman, W. C. and Wiggins, E. J. 1957. Ice fog as a problem of air pollution in the Arctic. Arctic, Vol 10, No 2, p 89104.
Weller, G. 1969. Ice fog studies in Alaska: a survey of past, present and proposed research. In: Geophysical Institute Report, UAG R-207. College, University of Alaska.
Winchester, J. W., Zoller, W. H., Duce, R. A. and Benson, C. S. 1967. Lead and halogens in pollution aerosols and snow from Fairbanks, Alaska. Atmospheric environment, Vol 1, No 2, p 105–19.

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