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Processional melodies in the Old Hispanic rite

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 February 2022



Old Hispanic liturgy was practised across much of medieval Iberia until c.1080. In this article we analyse the extant Old Hispanic processional antiphons, focusing on: the presence or absence of verses; amount of text and relationship with the Bible; cadence placement; number of notes per chant (melodic density) and per syllable; and melodic repetition within and between chants. We demonstrate that the processional antiphons are neither a homogenous corpus nor clearly differentiated stylistically from other Old Hispanic antiphons. In a short case study of the Good Friday Veneration of the Cross, we situate the processional antiphons within their wider ritual context, including their likely staging in the ecclesiastical architecture. As we show, the interaction between melody and ritual directed the antiphon texts towards a particular devotional end.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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1 Brou, Louis, ‘L'alleluia dans la liturgie mozarabe: Étude liturgico-musicale d'après les manuscrits de chant’, Anuario musical, 6 (1951), 390Google Scholar (laudes melody types and structures); idem, ‘Le Joyau des antiphonaires latins’, Archivos Leoneses, 8 (1954), 7–114 (stylistic traits of several genres); Don Michael Randel, The Responsorial Psalm Tones for the Mozarabic Office (Princeton, 1969) (formulaic melodies and regional dialects); idem, ‘Responsorial Psalmody in the Mozarabic Rite’, Études grégoriennes, 10 (1989), 87–116 and ‘Las formas musicales del canto viejo-hispánico’, in El canto mozárabe y su entorno: Estudios sobre la música de la liturgia viejo hispánica, ed. Ismael Fernández de la Cuesta et al. (Madrid, 2013), 83–94 (compositional process). Susana Zapke, El Antifonario de San Juan de la Peña (siglos X–XI). Estudio litúrgico-musical del rito hispánico (Zaragoza, 1995) (melodic structures); Nils Nadeau, ‘Pro sonorum diversitate vel novitate: The Singing of Scripture in the Hispano-Visigothic Votive Masses’, Ph.D. diss., Cornell University (1998) (melodic grammar); David Hiley, ‘Office Responsories in the León Antiphoner: Are They All “Original” Melodies?’ in El canto mozárabe y su entorno, ed. de la Cuesta et al., 405–12 (cadences); Hornby, Emma and Maloy, Rebecca, Music and Meaning in Old Hispanic Lenten Chants: Threni, Psalmi, and Easter Vigil Canticles (Woodbridge, 2013)Google Scholar (melodic grammar and rhetoric). The analytical methodology used in Music and Meaning is developed in the present article. For recent genre analyses, see Carrillo, Raquel Rojo, Text, Liturgy and Music in the Old Hispanic Rite: The Vespertinus Genre (Oxford, 2021)Google Scholar; Maloy, Rebecca, Songs of Sacrifice: Chant, Identity, and Christian Formation in Early Medieval Iberia (Oxford, 2020)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

Two dozen chants are preserved in Aquitanian notation. See transcriptions in Casiano Rojo and Germán Prado, El canto mozárabe: Estudio histórico-crítico de su antigüedad y estado actual (Barcelona, 1929), 73–81; Manuel Pedro Ferreira, Antologia de Música em Portugal: na Idade Média e no Renascimento, Edições Musicais 2 vols. (Lisbon, 2003), 2: 15–16; Carmen Rodriguez Suso, ‘Les chants pour la dédicace des églises dans les anciennes liturgies de la Septimanie: leur contexte liturgique et leur transmission musicale’, in L'Art du chantre carolingien: Découvrir l'esthétique première du chant grégorien, ed. Christian-Jacques Demollière (Metz, 2004), 91–101.

2 Robin Darling Young, In Procession Before the World: Martyrdom as Public Liturgy in Early Christianity (Milwaukee, 2001), 7–8, 22–3 and passim; Kathleen Ashley and Wim Hüsken, eds., Moving Subjects: Processional Performance in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Amsterdam, 2001). On Christian stational liturgy, see John F. Baldovin, The Urban Character of Christian Worship: The Origins, Development, and Meaning of Stational Liturgy, Orientalia Christiana Analecta 228 (Rome, 1987). On processions in the Roman liturgy, see (inter alia) Helen Gittos and Sarah Hamilton, eds., Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation (Surrey, 2016); Susan Boynton and Diane J. Reilly, eds., Resounding Images: Medieval Intersections of Art, Music, and Sound (Turnhout, 2015); Helen Gittos, Liturgy, Architecture, and Sacred Places in Anglo-Saxon England (Corby, 2013); Megan Cassidy-Welch, ‘Space and Place in Medieval Contexts’, Parergon, 27 (2010), 1–12; Margot E. Fassler, ‘Adventus at Chartres: Ritual Models for Major Processions’, in Ceremonial Culture in Premodern Europe, ed. Nicholas Howe (Notre Dame, 2007), 13–62; Susan Boynton and Isabelle Cochelin, eds., From Dead of Night to End of Day: The Medieval Customs of Cluny (Turnhout, 2005), especially the essays by Kristina Krueger and Carolyn Marino Malone; Harald Buchinger, David Hiley and Sabine Reichert, eds., Prozessionen und ihre Gesänge in der mittelalterlichen Stadt. Gestalt – Hermeneutik – Repräsentation (Regensburg, 2017).

For Iberia, Richard Bertram Donovan, The Liturgical Drama in Medieval Spain (Toronto, 1958) engages closely with Roman liturgy processions but does not mention Old Hispanic materials. Similarly, Karl Young, The Drama of the Medieval Church, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1933) documents numerous Western liturgical processions, but no Old Hispanic ones.

3 For the Old Hispanic texts, see Online Appendix A (, where the Bible texts are taken from the Vulgate, except for the psalms, which are taken from the Mozarabic psalter as preserved in Madrid, Biblioteca nacional, 10001. We are – as ever – indebted to Don Randel's magisterial Index to the Chant of the Mozarabic Rite (Princeton, 1973), for information about chant concordances and biblical text sources. As well as the gospel texts, one Palm Sunday chant draws on Psalm 117:27, a verse linked by Cassiodorus to processions: ‘In confrequentationibus, id est processionibus crebris, quas populi turba condensat, et reddit celeberrimas devotione festiva.’ ‘With packed gatherings, that is, in crowded processions packed by flocks of people and celebrated with festive devotion’ translated by P.G. Walsh Cassiodorus: Explanation of the Psalms, vol. 3 (New York, 1991), 172.

4 David Andrés, Carmen Julia Gutiérrez, Emma Hornby and Raquel Rojo Carrillo, ‘Processions and their chants in the Old Hispanic liturgy’, Traditio, 75 (2020), 1–47.

5 The unnotated processional antiphons are: Sinite parvulos (item 29, S3, 28v; refer to Table 1 for manuscript sigla and Table 2 for item numbers; Hylaritate perfusa est (item 48, L8, 266v); and Det tibi dominus prudentiam, Dominus custodiat te, Da potestatem and Det dominus gratiam (item 52, L8, 271v). There is an unnotated incipit for alleluiaticus Gloriam in items 43 and 44 (S4, 39v; A56, 9r). We do not consider that usage here; the same text is given in full and notated in item 52 (L8, 271r).

6 On the debate about the origins of L8, see most recently Carmen Julia Gutiérrez, ‘“Librum de auratum conspice pinctum”. Sobre la datación y la procedencia del Antifonario de León’, Revista de Musicología, 42/2 (2019), 19–76.

7 On ‘occasional rituals’ in the Roman liturgy, see Gittos and Hamilton, ‘Introduction’, in Understanding Medieval Liturgy, 1–12.

8 On the dating and origin of the four manuscripts, see and also (Appendix 1). All belong to liturgical Tradition A, preserved in eighth- to eleventh-century manuscripts, and in several later Toledan manuscripts. The fifth manuscript with processional antiphons, Toledo Cathedral 35–5 (T5), belongs instead to Tradition B, a distinct liturgical tradition preserved in three thirteenth-century manuscripts associated with particular Toledan parishes. The relationship between Traditions A and B is complex, and full engagement with the processional materials of T5 must await future investigation. On this relationship, see, inter alia, Jordi Pinell, ‘El problema de la dos tradiciones del antiguo rito hispánico: valoración documental de la tradición B en vistas a una eventual revisón del ordinario de la misa mozárabe’, in Liturgia y música mozárabes: ponencias y comunicaciones presentadas al I congreso internacional de estudios mozárabes, Toledo, 1975 (Toledo, 1978), 3–44; Ramon Gonzálvez Ruiz, ‘El canciller don Pedro López de Ayala y el problema de las dos tradiciones del rito hispánico’, in Liturgia y música mozárabes, 105–10; idem, ‘The Persistence of the Mozarabic Liturgy in Toledo after AD 1080’, in Santiago, Saint-Denis and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in León-Castille in 1080, ed. Bernard F. Reilly (New York, 1985), 157–85; idem, ‘La persistencia del rito hispánico o mozárabe en Toledo después del año 1080’, Annales toledanos, 27 (1990), 9–33; José Janini, Liber misticus de Cuaresma (Cod. Toledo 35.2, hoy en Madrid Bibl. nac. 10.110) (Toledo, 1979), xxix–xxx; and Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning, 5–12 and 302–14.

10 The relationship ratio is 2A/(B+C), where:

  • A = number of compatible notes

  • B = number of notes in first manuscript

  • C = number of notes in second manuscript

See Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning, 20–1. Hornby and Maloy differentiate between melodies with a ratio of 0.9 (very closely related), 0.75 (related but not closely) and 0.5 (not related).

11 The seminal work on Old Hispanic melodic transmission is Randel, The Responsorial Psalm Tones. Building on that work, see Emma Hornby and Rebecca Maloy, ‘Melodic Dialects in Old Hispanic Chant’, Plainsong and Medieval Music, 25 (2016), 37–72; and eadem, ‘Fixity, Flexibility, and Compositional Process in Old Hispanic Chant’, Music and Letters, 97 (2016), 547–74).

13 An introductory stanza Ecce lignum, with (possible refrain) stanza Crux fidelis by Venantius Fortunatus, followed by twenty-four abecedary verses.

14 Clyde Brockett, ‘Osanna! New Light on the Palm Sunday Processional Antiphon Series’, Plainsong and Medieval Music, 9 (2000), 95–129, at 122–7, notes the limited melodic relationship between Old Hispanic and Gregorian textual cognates. On textual connections between a Palm Sunday processional antiphon in T5, Aquitaine and Byzantium, see Michel Huglo, ‘Source hagiopolite d'une antienne hispanique pour le Dimanche des Rameaux’, Hispania Sacra, 10 (1957), 367–74; Brockett, ‘Osanna!’, 111.

15 This list includes some chants lacking processional rubrics. Clyde Brockett, The Repertory of Processional Antiphons (Brepols, 2018).

16 On the ‘neutral connotation’ of genre in this sense, see Ritva Jacobsson and Leo Treitler, ‘Tropes and the Concept of Genre’, in Pax et Sapientia: Studies in Text and Music of Liturgical Tropes and Sequences in Memory of Gordon Anderson, ed. Ritva Jacobsson (Cologny-Geneve, 1986), 59–89, at 60.

17 Chant analysis routinely focuses on genre-specific characteristics. See, for example, David Hiley, Western Plainchant: A Handbook (Oxford, 1993); Willi Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, 1958). For genre-specific Old Hispanic chant analyses, see note 1. For summary analyses of each Old Hispanic chant genre, with further bibliography, see Emma Hornby, Kati Ihnat, Rebecca Maloy and Raquel Rojo Carrillo, Liturgical and Musical Culture in Early Medieval Iberia: Decoding a Lost Tradition (Cambridge, forthcoming).

18 Very few conventional antiphons have more than one verse. See Hornby et al., Liturgical and Musical Culture.

19 Iberian prohibition of ‘alleluia’ during Lent was attested at the Fourth Council of Toledo (ad 633). See Toledo IV, can. 11, La Colección Canónica Hispana, V. Concilios Hispanos: Segunda Parte, ed. Gonzalo Martínez Díez and Félix Rodríguez (Madrid, 1992), 199–200.

20 On alleluiatici as an antiphon subgenre, see Don Michael Randel and Nils Nadeau, ‘Mozarabic Chant’, Grove Music Online, (accessed 2 March 2020); Don Michael Randel, ‘Leander, Isidore and Gregory’, Journal of Musicology, 36 (2019), 498–522, at 511–12.

21 On an Old Hispanic psalm cycle, see Jordi Pinell, ‘Las missae: grupos de cantos y oraciones en el oficio de la antigua liturgia hispana’, Archivos Leoneses, 8 (1954), 145–85, at 154–72; idem, ‘El oficio hispano-visigótico I. Fuentes para su estudio’, Hispania Sacra, 10 (1957), 385–427, at 412–19; W.S. Porter, ‘Studies in the Mozarabic Office’, Journal of Theological Studies, 35 (1934), 266–86, at 283–6. Brou argued against the existence of Old Hispanic continuous psalmody in ‘Le Joyau’, 97–111. Randel and Nadeau noted the likelihood of psalmody in the ‘monastic office’ (see ‘Mozarabic chant’). For a recent argument in favour of continuous psalmody in the night services, see Emma Hornby and Kati Ihnat, ‘Continuous Psalmody in the Old Hispanic Liturgy’, Scriptorium, 73 (2019), 3–33.

22 For example, Aperiat tibi, sung during the deposition of a body (S4, 97 and 100v; S3, 25v; A56, 33v and 37r).

23 This correlates with the routine definition of processional antiphons in the Roman liturgy. See, for example, Hiley, Western Plainchant, 100.

24 Isidore, De Ecclesiasticis Officiis, trans. and intr. Thomas L. Knoebel (New York, 2008), 32; Isidore, De Ecclesiasticis Officiis, ed. Christopher M. Lawson, CCSL 113 (Turnhout, 1989), 7–8.

25 Isidore, Etymologies, trans., notes and intr. Stephen A. Barney, W.J. Lewis, J.A. Beach and Oliver Berghof, with the collaboration of Muriel Hall (Cambridge, 2006), 147; Isidore, Etymologiarum sive Originum, ed. W.M. Lindsay, Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1911), 1: (VI:xix:5).

26 For the distinction between antiphony and antiphons, see Michel Huglo and Joan Halmo, ‘Antiphon’, New Grove Online, (accessed 8 January 2020). See also Daniel Saulnier, ‘Des variantes musicales dans la tradition manuscrite des antiennes du repertoire romano-franc’, Ph.D. diss., Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Sciences historiques et philologiques) (2005), 25–71. On these passages, see Randel, ‘Leander’, 505.

27 ‘Ad dextra levaque coro consistunt, antiphone modos reciprocatos canunt: uni incipientes et alii subpsalmantes, tertio post gloriam pariter cantantes.’ Translation from Randel, ‘Responsorial Psalmody’, 87. See Randel, ‘Responsorial Psalmody’, 87–9 for detailed discussion of the L8 prologues (according to Randel, Prologue 3's description of three choirs should not be taken literally). See also Susana Zapke, ‘En torno a la nociones de publicus y privatus. Apuntes al contexto y funcionalidad de los textos preliminares del Antifonario de León’, in El canto mozárabe y su entorno, ed. de la Cuesta et al., 337–56; Manuel C. Díaz y Díaz, ‘Los prólogos del antiphonale visigothicum de la catedral de León (Leon, Arch. Cat. 8)’, Archivos Leoneses, 8 (1954), 226–57; Michel Huglo, ‘Les prologues de l'antiphonaire mozarabe de Leon’, in Cantus Planus: Papers Read at the 13th Meeting of the IMS Study Group. Neideraltaich/Germany, 2006, ed. Barbara Haggh and László Dobszay (Budapest, 2009), 317–25.

28 See Elena Quevedo-Chigas, ‘Early Medieval Iberian Architecture and the Hispanic Liturgy: A Study of the Development of Church Planning from the First to the Tenth Centuries’, Ph.D. diss., New York University (1996), 115–28.

29 David Andrés Fernández, ‘Fit processio et cantantur antiphonae sequentes. Tipología de las formas de música litúrgica en los libros procesionales’, Medievalia: Revista de Estudios Medievales, 17 (2014), 103–29, at 106–10, with further bibliography.

30 Domine deus virtus (item 49), preserved with Psalm 139 for the night liturgy (British Library, Add. 30851, 86v; and Madrid, Biblioteca nacional, 10.001, 72r). Educ (item 30, 36 and 37), preserved with a verse for matutinum, Beheading of Saint John the Baptist (L8, 236r and British Library, Add. 30845, 113r). Emitte (item 30, 36 and 37) preserved with a verse for Saturday terce of Lent, week five (L8, 151v). Resistite (item 4) is also used non-processionally (item 39).

31 There has been much important work on Gregorian and Old Roman antiphons. See, inter alia, Helmut Hucke, ‘Musikalische Formen der Offiziumsantiphonen’, Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch, 37 (1953), 7–33; László Dobszay and Janka Szendrei, eds., Antiphonen: Monumenta monodica medii aevi 5, 3 vols. (Kassel, 1999); Edward Nowacki, ‘Studies on the Office Antiphons of the Old Roman Manuscripts’, Ph.D. diss., Brandeis University (1980).

32 After the psalm recitation, the intervallic structure even of a relatively simple melody is highlighted by the contrast with the (literally) monotonous recitation tone, giving a quite different experience.

33 Adnuntiabitur and Egredere (item 4), and Lumen (items 23–4).

34 ‘Cumque acceserint ad altare dicta gloria, caput repetitur.’

35 ‘et cantant eam ante regem euntes quamdiu rex foras osteum ecclesiae egrediatur’. Roger Collins argues that this ceremony was specific to seventh-century Toledo, albeit preserved in the manuscript record much later. See Roger Collins and Anthony Goodman, ‘Continuity and Loss in Medieval Spanish Culture: The Evidence of MS Silos, Archivo Monástico 4’, in Medieval Spain: Culture, Conflict and Coexistence (London, 2002), 1–22.

36 Constituite (item 5), Emitte (items 30, 36 and 37), Cum iucunditate, Ecce porta, Haec … tempore and Alleluia egressus … domini (all item 48).

37 Resistite (item 4), Quum audisset (item 5), Osanna (item 5), Amen dico (item 5), Educ (items 30, 36 and 37), Egredimini, Introibimus, Ecce recordatus (all item 48), Gloriam and Det tibi (both item 52).

38 In nomine, Exite, De iherusalem and Leba iherusalem (all item 48).

39 Gloria in excelsis (item 5), Signum, Iter, Benedictum (all items 14–16), Ambulate and Haec … deserta (both item 48).

40 Visitationem (item 48).

41 On the theological potential of juxtaposing biblical texts in Old Hispanic chant, see (inter alia) Maloy, Songs of Sacrifice, 74–86.

42 Adnuntiabitur, Egredere (both item 4), Lumen and Ecce grex (both items 23–4), and possibly Benedictus es (items 43–4), depending on the repetition pattern.

43 On medieval concern for a textually harmonious repeat after a chant verse in early ninth-century Francia, see Kenneth Levy, ‘Abbot Helisacher's Antiphoner’, in Gregorian Chant and the Carolingians (Princeton, 1998), 178–86.

44 Joshua: Alleluia egressus … de, Alleluia audite, Alleluia loquutus; Exodus: Alleluia memores; Isaiah: Aperite (all item 48); Quum adpropinquaret and Quum introires (both item 5) draw from the Gospels.

45 Quodquod (item 26): verses from John, Romans and 1 Peter; 232 syllables.

46 For example, Adnuntiabitur (item 4) has cadences on ‘domino’, ‘ventura’, ‘eius’, ‘nascetur’ and ‘dominus’.

47 See (inter alia) Calvin Bower, ‘The Grammatical Model of Musical Understanding in the Middle Ages’, in Hermeneutics and Medieval Cultures, ed. Patrick Gallacher and Helen Damico (Albany, 1989), 133–45; Karen Desmond, ‘Sicut in Grammatica: Analogical Discourse in Chapter 15 of Guido's Micrologus’, Journal of Musicology, 16 (1998), 467–93; Emma Hornby, Medieval Liturgical Chant and Patristic Exegesis: Words and Music in the Second-Mode Tracts (Woodbridge, 2009), 23–37. On the Old Hispanic repertoire, see Nadeau ‘Pro sonorum’, 132ff.

48 A neume is a notational sign, signifying one or more notes. On the recurring patterns, see Hornby and Maloy, ‘Melodic dialects’, 42–51; Nadeau, ‘Pro sonorum’, 191–206.

49 See Hornby and Maloy, ‘Melodic dialects’; and Hornby et al., Liturgical and Musical Culture.

50 For discussion, see Hornby et al., Liturgical and Musical Culture.

51 Item 48. For this idea, see Margot Fassler, ‘The Liturgical Framework of Time and the Representation of History’, Representing History, 900–1300: Art, Music, History, ed. Robert Maxwell (University Park, PA, 2010), 149–71.

52 José Janini, ‘Cuaresma visigoda y Carnes Tollendas’, Anthologica Annua, 9 (1961), 22–4; and Juan V.M. Arbeloa Rigau, ‘Per una nova interpretació del Còdex Veronensis i les esglésies visigòtiques de Tàrraco’, Butlletí Arqueològic – Reial Societat Arqueològica Tarraconense, 8–9 (1986–7), 125–34.

53 (accessed 1 June 2021).

54 Aperite: ‘Hymnis et canticis’ (item 48); Quum introires: ‘legem et prophetas’ (item 5); Ecce recordatus: ‘cum summo studio et gaudio magno’ (item 48).

55 Cum iucunditate (item 48) and Domine deus virtus (item 49). Melodic density charts for each processional antiphon are given in Online Appendix A.

56 Ecce grex (items 23–4), Amen dico (item 5), Leba iherusalem (item 48), Gloriam (item 52) and Signum (items 14–16).

57 De iherusalem, In nomine, Haec … deserta, Ecce recordatus (all item 48).

58 Visitationem, Alleluia loquutus, Alleluia egressus … domini, Alleluia egressus … de, Alleluia memores, Alleluia audite, Aperite (all item 48).

59 AA′ in Aperite, Alleluia loquutus, Alleluia egressus … domini, and Alleluia memores; AAB in Visitationem; AA′B in Alleluia egressus … de, and Alleluia audite (all item 48).

60 Brou, ‘Le Joyau’, 19–22; idem, ‘L'alleluia’, 3–90; Hornby et al., Liturgical and Musical Culture; Maloy, Songs of Sacrifice. The sacrificium is the Old Hispanic offertory; the sono is a melodically complex matutinum and vespers genre.

61 On opening melismas as a ‘gleeful indulgence’, see Nadeau, ‘Pro sonorum’, 188–91.

62 For discussion, and further bibliography, see Emma Hornby, ‘Musical Values in Old Hispanic Chant’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 69 (2016), 595–650; Rebecca Maloy, ‘Old Hispanic Chant and the Early History of Plainsong’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 67 (2014), 1–76.

63 Item 48.

64 On Lenten psalmi, see Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning, ch. 4.

65 Herminio González Barrionuevo has published the most concentrated work on Old Hispanic notation, including ‘Relación entre la notación “mozárabe” de tipo vertical y otras escrituras neumáticas’, Studi gregoriani, 2 (1995), 5–112; and ‘La notación del Antifonario de León’, in El canto mozárabe y su entorno, ed. de al Cuesta et al., 95–120.

66 On the extant antiphon verse melodies, see Don Randel, ‘Antiphonal Psalmody in the Mozarabic Rite’, in International Musicological Society: Report of the Twelfth Congress. Berkeley 1977, ed. Daniel Heartz and Bonnie Wade (Kassel/Basel/London, 1981), 141–22; idem, ‘El antiguo rito hispánico y la salmodia primitiva en occidente’, Revista de Musicología, 8 (1985), 229–38.

67 Adnuntiabitur (item 4), Benedictus es (items 43–4), Lumen, Ecce grex (both items 23–4) and Egredere (item 4).

68 Quum introires (item 5), Haec … deserta, Leba iherusalem, De iherusalem, Ecce recordatus, Visitationem, Alleluia egressus … domini, Aperite, Alleluia memores, Alleluia loquutus (all item 48).

69 Domine deus virtutem, Accipe (both item 49), Quodquod (item 26).

70 Quum adpropinquaverunt (item 5), Alleluia audite and Alleluia egressus … de (both item 48).

71 Domine deus virtutem, Accipe (both item 49), Quodquod (item 26).

72 Adnuntiabitur, Egredere (both item 4), Quum introires (item 5), Lumen, Ecce grex (both items 23–4), Benedictus es (items 43–4), Aperite, Alleluia memores and Alleluia loquutus (all item 48).

73 Quum adpropinquaverunt (item 5), Alleluia egressus … de and Alleluia audite (both item 48).

74 Leba iherusalem, De iherusalem, Haec … deserta, Ecce recordatus, Visitationem and Alleluia egressus … domini (all item 48).

75 De iherusalem (with melodic parallel on the preceding three syllables as well; item 48), Alleluia loquutus (end of alleluia melisma only, with a repeated musical phrase on ‘universe terre’ and ‘sen ita ero tecum’), Alleluia egressus … de, Alleluia audite, Alleluia egressus est … domini (all item 48).

76 Signum (twice), Iter, Benedictum (twice) (all items 14–16), Alleluia audite (item 48), Ecce grex (items 23–4) and Resistite (item 4).

77 At the end of the introductory ‘alleluia’ (Alleluia memores, Alleluia egressus … de); before a preposition or ‘et’ (Ambulate, Alleluia memores, Alleluia audite, Haec … deserta); and at the end of the chant, mirroring the same chant's opening melisma (Alleluia memores). It is also used in Egredere (item 4), ‘Egredere’. We have encountered it elsewhere in both L8 and in S4, in varied contexts: on the first word or first small section of text; at a small text division; at the end of a clause; and at the end of a sentence.

78 The two single notes at the end of a phrase are rare in León albeit not unknown. See Hornby and Maloy, ‘Melodic Dialects’, 45.

79 See Online Appendix B.

80 As, for example, at the ninth-century rural church of Santa Cristina de Lena, twenty-three miles south of Oviedo. See Elena Quevedo-Chigas, ‘Early Medieval Iberian Architecture and the Hispanic liturgy: A Study of the Development of Church Planning from the 5th to the 10th Century’, Ph.D. diss., IFA-NYU (1995) for a discussion of choir screens during this time period. See also Eduardo Carrero and Daniel Rico, ‘La Organizacion del espacio liturgico hispanico entre los siglos VI and XI’, Antiquite Tardive, 23 (2015), 239–48; Luis Caballero Zoreda and Isaac Sastre de Diego, ‘Espacios de la liturgia hispana de los siglos V-X. Según la Arqueología’, in El canto mozárabe y su entorno. Estudios sobre la música de la liturgia Viejo hispánicax, ed. Rosario Álvarez Martínez, Ismael Fernández de la Cuesta and Ana Llorens Martín (Madrid, 2013), 259–91; Javier Martínez Jiménez, Isaac Sastre de Diego and Carlos Tejerizo, The Iberian Peninsula between 300 and 850: An Archaeological Perspective (Amsterdam, 2018).

81 Quevedo-Chigas, ‘Early Medieval Iberian Architecture’; Cristina Godoy Fernandez, Arqueologia y Liturgia. Iglesias Hispanicas (Siglos IV al VII) (Barcelona, 1995); Martínez Jiménez et al., The Iberian Peninsula between 300 and 850.

82 Accipe (item 49), Lumen (items 23–4) and Quodquod (item 26).

83 For the Latin, see Online Appendix B.

84 Pinell interprets ‘ad sanctę crucis ęclesiam’ as ‘to the chapel of the Holy Cross’. See Jordi Pinell, Liturgia hispánica (Barcelona, 1998), 309. For a brief description of the ceremony, where Old Hispanic elements are conflated with the later neo-Mozarabic liturgy, see John Walton Tyrer, Historical Survey of the Holy Week: Its Services and Ceremonial (London, 1932), 123.

85 See Arbeiter, Achim, ‘Early Hispanic Churches: When Did the Number of Altars Begin to Increase?’ in Church, State, Vellum: Essays on Medieval Spain in Honor of John Williams, ed. Martin, Therese and Harris, Julie A. (Leiden, 2005), 1146Google Scholar; Quevedo-Chigas, ‘Early Medieval Iberian Architecture’; Carrero and Rico, ‘La Organización del espacio’.

86 Quevedo-Chigas, ‘Early Medieval Iberian Architecture’ discusses the use of curtains and a movable wooden cathedra. See also Carrero and Rico, ‘La Organización del espacio’, for a discussion of ephemeral liturgical furniture used in medieval Palazzo, Iberia. Eric, ‘Art, Liturgy and the Five Senses in the Early Middle Ages’, Viator, 41 (2010), 2556CrossRefGoogle Scholar gives a general overview of movable liturgical furniture and furnishings in early medieval churches.

87 Fassler, ‘The Liturgical Framework’.

88 Eighteen notes in S4 and A56; twenty notes in L8.

89 Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning, 53–4, 79–80.

90 Expositio in Psalmum cxviii. Sancti Ambrosii opera, ed. Michael Petschenig, CSEL 62 (Vienna and Leipzig, 1918), 164.

91 The versions of these antiphons in S4 and A56 share many of the same recurring neume combinations, although not all of the same inter-relationships (see Online Appendix A).

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