Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-558cb97cc8-m5bhc Total loading time: 0.425 Render date: 2022-10-06T07:16:27.690Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Pitch series in chant composition: a demonstration

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2018

TERENCE BAILEY*
Affiliation:
tbailey@uwo.ca

Abstract

The exposition of an analytical method that reveals the simple basis of the melodic structure of Western liturgical chants belonging to the two general categories of responsory and antiphon. Included are historical observations meant to explain the origin and evolution of chant-melody in the period from the seventh to the thirteenth century.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 These comparisons were of Ambrosian and Franco-Roman counterparts. I will mention only a few: ‘Introits and Ingressae – Milan and Rome: The Elaboration of Chant Melodies, the Operation of Musical Memory’, Plainsong & Medieval Music, 19 (2010), 89–122; ‘The Adoption of the Roman Respond Gradual in Milan’, in ‘Quod ore cantas corde credas’: Studi in onore di Giacomo Baroffio Dahnk, ed. Leandra Scappaticci (Città del Vaticano, 2013), 239–55; Offertorium and Offerenda: Kinship and Structure (Ottawa, 2012); ‘Rome, Milan, and the Confractoria’, Papers Read at the 15th Meeting of the IMS Study Group Cantus Planus, Dobogókö, Hungary, 2009, August 23–29, ed. Barbara Haggh-Huglo and Debra Lacoste, 3 vols. (Lions Bay, 2013), 1: 51–76.

2 Octaves are differentiated with lower- and upper-case letters and added signs (G, A, c, d, c', d', etc.).

3 By Gregorian I mean Roman melodies and practices as adapted and expanded by the Franks.

4 In some earlier publications, a letter that indicated where successive syllables were sung on the same pitch was given in italic. My thinking was that when so written it might identify an underlying reciting-tone. But such ‘recitation’ in a chant is almost never limited to a single pitch, and the complication of italic letters proved pointless.

5 McKinnon, James, The Advent Project: The Later Seventh-Century Creation of the Roman Mass Proper (Berkely and Los Angeles, 2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

6 I goes without saying that some melodies exhibit irregularities. These can be reasonably explained, but perhaps it needs to be said that the melodies have not been, nor can be, forced into a Procrustean melodic framework.

7 In antiphons such as Deus judex iustus for Tuesdays at Prime, and in responsories such as Exsurge domine for Wednesdays (these are the complete texts), the texts are too short to require repetitions of pitch-series. Antiphonale monasticum, Vatican Edition 1934 (available online), 12, 14.

8 In the Dies irae, for example, the three melodies for stanzas 1–6 are repeated for 7–12 and 13–17 (the last line is not paired).

9 I have used the terms schema and schemata to emphasise that these arrangements of the pitch-letters are artificial constructs and not to be seen as transcriptions of the melodies.

10 Déri, Balázs, ‘The Coptic Psalmos’, Papers Read at the 15th Meeting of the IMS Study Group Cantus Planus Dobogókö/Hungary, 2009, Institute of Mediaeval Music, Musicological Studies 100/101 (Ottawa, 2013), 163–92Google Scholar.

11 This way of marking the major divisions in the text is ideal, and no doubt the normal practice, but failures in the rote transmission of the melodies have sometimes obscured the governance of the finalis. Examples can even be found; for example, the antiphons A bimatu et infra and Ambulabunt mecum in albi, which were discussed (c.900) in the Commemoratio brevis – antiphons that have the same melody, but end on different pitches.

12 Offertory verses were dropped centuries before the age of printed books, but they have been edited and published by Karl Ott, Offertoriale sive versus offertoriorum (Paris, 1935).

13 The same chants are also available in earlier Vatican editions, beginning in 1908.

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Pitch series in chant composition: a demonstration
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Pitch series in chant composition: a demonstration
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Pitch series in chant composition: a demonstration
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *