Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Input Optimisation: phonology and morphology*

  • Michael Hammond (a1)

Abstract

In this paper, I provide a unified account of three frequency effects in phonology. First, typologically marked elements are underrepresented. Second, phonological changes are underrepresented. Third, morphologically conditioned phonological changes are overrepresented. These effects are demonstrated with corpus data from English and Welsh. I show how all three effects follow from a simple conception of phonological complexity. Further, I demonstrate how this notion of complexity makes predictions about other phenomena in these languages, and that these predictions are borne out. I model this with traditional Optimality Theory, but the proposal is consistent with any constraint-based formalism that weights constraints in some way.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Input Optimisation: phonology and morphology*
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Input Optimisation: phonology and morphology*
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Input Optimisation: phonology and morphology*
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Thanks to Adam Albright, Elise Bell, Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero, Amy Fountain, Chris Golston, S. J. Hannahs, Lionel Mathieu, Diane Ohala and Maggie Tallerman for useful discussion. Thanks also to audiences at Manchester and Arizona and to the members of my 2015 Linguistics 514 class. Finally, thanks to three anonymous reviewers, an associate editor and the editors for additional feedback. All errors are my own.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Anderson, Skye (2015). The distribution of phonological changes in Welsh plurals. Ms, University of Arizona.
Berkley, Deborah Milam (1994a). The OCP and gradient data. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 24. 5972.
Berkley, Deborah Milam (1994b). Variability in Obligatory Contour Principle effects. CLS 30:2. 112.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo (1998). Prosodic optimization: the Middle English length adjustment. English Language and Linguistics 2. 169197.
Boersma, Paul (1997). How we learn variation, optionality, and probability. Proceedings of the Institute of Phonetic Sciences of the University of Amsterdam 21. 4358. Available as ROA-221 from the Rutgers Optimality Archive.
Bolinger, Dwight L. (1962). Binomials and pitch accent. Lingua 11. 3444.
Chomsky, Noam & Halle, Morris (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
Coetzee, Andries W. (2008). Grammaticality and ungrammaticality in phonology. Lg 84. 218257.
Coetzee, Andries W. & Pater, Joe (2011). The place of variation in phonological theory. In Goldsmith, John, Riggle, Jason & Yu, Alan (eds.) The handbook of phonological theory. 2nd edn. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 401431.
Coetzee, Andries W. & Kawahara, Shigeto (2013). Frequency biases in phonological variation. NLLT 31. 4789.
Deuchar, Margaret, Davies, Peredur, Herring, Jon Russell, Parafita Couto, M. Carmen & Carter, Diana (2014). Building bilingual corpora. In Thomas, Enlli Môn & Mennen, Ineke (eds.) Advances in the study of bilingualism. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 93110.
Ellis, N. C., O'Dochartaigh, C., Hicks, W., Morgan, M. & Laporte, N. (2001). Cronfa electroneg o Gymraeg (CEG): a 1 million word lexical database and frequency count for Welsh. http://www.bangor.ac.uk/canolfanbedwyr/ceg.php.en.
Frisch, Stefan A. (1996). Similarity and frequency in phonology. PhD dissertation, Northwestern University.
Frisch, Stefan A., Large, Nathan R. & Pisoni, David B. (2000). Perception of wordlikeness: effects of segment probability and length on the processing of nonwords. Journal of Memory and Language 42. 481496.
Golston, Chris (1998). Constraint-based metrics. NLLT 16. 719770.
Green, Anthony D. (2006). The independence of phonology and morphology: the Celtic mutations. Lingua 116. 19461985.
Greenberg, Joseph H. (1954). A quantitative approach to the morphological typology of language. In Spencer, Robert F. (ed.) Method and perspective in anthropology: papers in honor of Wilson D. Wallis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 192220.
Greenberg, Joseph H. (1966). Language universals, with special reference to feature hierarchies. The Hague & Paris: Mouton.
Greenberg, Joseph H. (1974). Language typology: a historical and analytic overview. The Hague & Paris: Mouton.
Guy, Gregory R. (1991). Explanation in a variable phonology: an exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3. 122.
Hammond, Michael (1984). Constraining metrical theory: a modular theory of rhythm and destressing. PhD dissertation, UCLA. Published 1988, New York: Garland.
Hammond, Michael (1999). Lexical frequency and rhythm. In Darnell, Michael, Moravcsik, Edith, Newmeyer, Frederick, Noonan, Michael & Wheatley, Kathleen (eds.) Functionalism and formalism in linguistics. Vol. 1: General papers. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 329358.
Hammond, Michael (2003). Phonotactics and probabilistic ranking. In Carnie, Andrew, Harley, Heidi & Willie, MaryAnn (eds.) Formal approaches to function in grammar: in honor of Eloise Jelinek. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 319332.
Hammond, Michael (2013). Input optimization in English. Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan 17. 2637.
Hammond, Michael (2014). Phonological complexity and input optimization. Phonological Studies 17. 8594.
Hammond, Michael, Moravcsik, Edith & Wirth, Jessica (1988). Language typology and linguistic explanation. In Hammond, Michael, Moravcsik, Edith & Wirth, Jessica (eds.) Studies in syntactic typology. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 122.
Hannahs, S. J. (2011). Celtic mutations. In van Oostendorp, Marc, Ewen, Colin J., Hume, Elizabeth & Rice, Keren (eds.) The Blackwell companion to phonology. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell. 28072830.
Hannahs, S. J. (2013). The phonology of Welsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hayes, Bruce (1980). A metrical theory of stress rules. PhD dissertation, MIT. Published 1985, New York: Garland.
Hayes, Bruce (1984). The phonology of rhythm in English. LI 15. 3374.
Hayes, Bruce & Wilson, Colin (2008). A maximum entropy model of phonotactics and phonotactic learning. LI 39. 379440.
Jakobson, Roman (1968). Child language, aphasia and phonological universals. The Hague: Mouton.
Kiparsky, Paul (1982). Lexical morphology and phonology. In Linguistic Society of Korea (ed.) Linguistics in the morning calm. Seoul: Hanshin. 391.
Kučera, Henry & Francis, W. Nelson (1967). Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence, RI: Brown University Press.
Kurisu, Kazutaka (2001). The phonology of morpheme realization. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Liberman, Mark & Prince, Alan (1977). On stress and linguistic rhythm. LI 8. 249336.
McCarthy, John J. & Prince, Alan (1993). Prosodic morphology I: constraint interaction and satisfaction. Ms, University of Massachusetts, Amherst & Rutgers University.
Maddieson, Ian (1984). Patterns of sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Menn, Lise & MacWhinney, Brian (1984). The repeated morph constraint: toward an explanation. Lg 60. 519541.
Morris Jones, J. (1913). A Welsh grammar: historical and comparative. Oxford: Clarendon.
Nevins, Andrew & Vaux, Bert (2007). Underlying representations that do not minimize grammatical violations. In Blaho, Sylvia, Bye, Patrik & Krämer, Martin (eds.) Freedom of analysis? Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 3561.
Pater, Joe (2009). Weighted constraints in generative linguistics. Cognitive Science 33. 9991035.
Pitt, Mark A., Dilley, Laura C., Johnson, Keith, Kieling, S., Raymond, William D., Hume, Elizabeth & Fosler-Lussier, E. (2007). Buckeye corpus of conversational speech. 2nd release. Columbus: Ohio State University. http://www.buckeyecorpus.osu.edu.
Prince, Alan & Smolensky, Paul (2004). Optimality Theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell.
Stemberger, Joseph Paul (1981). Morphological haplology. Lg 57. 791817.
Stewart, Thomas W. (2004). Mutation as morphology: bases, stems, and shapes in Scottish Gaelic. PhD dissertation, Ohio State University.
Toutanova, Kristina, Klein, Dan, Manning, Christopher D. & Singer, Yoram (2003). Feature-rich part-of-speech tagging with a cyclic dependency network. In Proceedings of the 2003 Human Language Technology Conference of the NAACL. 173–180.
Trubetzkoy, Nikolai S. (1939). Grundzüge der Phonologie. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Turton, Danielle (2012). The darkening of English /l/: a stochastic stratal OT analysis. http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/001524.
Ussishkin, Adam (2000). The emergence of fixed prosody. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Vaux, Bert & Samuels, Bridget (2005). Laryngeal markedness and aspiration. Phonology 22. 395436.
Wolf, Matthew (2007). For an autosegmental theory of mutation. In Bateman, Leah, O'Keefe, Michael, Reilly, Ehren & Werle, Adam (eds.) Papers in Optimality Theory III. Amherst: GLSA. 315404.
Zwicky, Arnold M. (1987). Suppressing the Zs. JL 23. 133148.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Hammond supplementary material
Hammond supplementary material 1

 Unknown (250 KB)
250 KB

Input Optimisation: phonology and morphology*

  • Michael Hammond (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.