Skip to main content Accessibility help

Between Science and Engineering: Reflections on the APSA Presidential Task Force on Political Science, Electoral Rules, and Democratic Governance: Electoral Rules and Political Inclusion

  • Mona Lena Krook (a1) and Robert G. Moser (a2)


Political scientists have contributed to the world of electoral systems as scientists and as engineers. Taking stock of recent scientific research, we show that context modifies the effects of electoral rules on political outcomes in specific and systematic ways. We explore how electoral rules shape the inclusion of women and minorities, the depth and nature of political competition, and patterns of redistribution and regulation, and we consider institutional innovations that could promote political equality. Finally, we describe the diverse ways that political scientists produce an impact on the world by sharing and applying their knowledge of the consequences of electoral rules and global trends in reform.



Hide All
Alionescu, Ciprian-Calin. 2004. “Parliamentary Representation of Minorities in Romania.” Southeast European Politics 5(1): 6075.
Baldez, Lisa. 2004. “Elected Bodies: Gender Quotas for Female Legislative Candidates in Mexico.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 29(2): 231–58.
Barkan, Joel. 1995. “Elections in Agrarian Societies.” Journal of Democracy 6(4): 106–16.
Bauer, Gretchen, and Britton, Hannah. 2006. “Women in African Parliaments: A Continental Shift?” In Women in African Parliaments, ed. Bauer, Gretchen and Britton, Hannah. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Beckwith, Karen, and Cowell-Meyers, Kimberly. 2007. “Sheer Numbers: Critical Representation Thresholds and Women's Political Representation.” Perspectives on Politics 5(3): 553–65.
Bird, Karen. 2003. “The Political Representation of Women and Ethnic Minorities in Established Democracies.” Presented at the Academy of Migration Studies in Denmark, Aalborg University, November 11, 2003.
Bjarnegård, Elin. 2013. Gender, Informal Institutions and Political Recruitment Explaining Male Dominance in Parliamentary Representation. New York: Palgrave.
Bush, Sarah Sunn. 2011. “International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures.” International Organization 65(1): 103–37.
Cameron, Charles, Epstein, David, and O'Halloran, Sharyn. 1996. “Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?American Political Science Review 90(4): 794812.
Celis, Karen, Childs, Sarah, Kantola, Johanna, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2008. “Rethinking Women's Substantive Representation.” Representation 44(2): 99110.
Celis, Karen, Krook, Mona Lena, and Meier, Petra. 2011. “The Rise of Gender Quota Laws: Expanding the Spectrum of Determinants for Electoral Reform.” West European Politics 34(3): 514–30.
Dahlerup, Drude, ed. 2006. Women, Quotas, and Politics. New York: Routledge.
Fréchette, Guillaume R., Maniquet, Francois, and Morelli, Massimo. 2008. “Incumbents' Interests, Voters' Bias and Gender Quotas.” American Journal of Political Science 52(4): 891909.
Freidenvall, Lenita, Dahlerup, Drude, and Skjeie, Hege. 2006. “The Nordic Countries: An Incremental Model.” In Women, Quotas, and Politics, ed. Dahlerup, Drude. New York: Routledge.
Geddis, Andrew. 2006. “A Dual Track Democracy? The Symbolic Role of the Maori Seats in New Zealand's Electoral System.” Election Law Journal 5(4): 347–71.
Hartzell, Caroline, and Hoddie, Matthew. 2003. “Institutionalizing Peace: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Conflict Management.” American Journal of Political Science 47(2): 318–32.
Holmsten, Stephanie, Moser, Robert G., and Slosar, Mary. 2010. “Do Ethnic Parties Exclude Women?Comparative Political Studies 43(10): 1179–201.
Htun, Mala. 2004. “Is Gender Like Ethnicity? The Political Representation of Identity Groups.” Perspectives on Politics 2(3): 439–58.
Htun, Mala, and Jones, Mark. 2002. “Engendering the Right to Participate in Decision Making: Electoral Quotas and Women's Leadership in Latin America.” In Gender and the Politics of Rights and Democracy in Latin America, ed. Craske, Nikki and Molyneux, Maxine. London: Palgrave.
Htun, Mala, and Ossa, Juan Pablo. 2013. “Political Inclusion of Marginalized Groups: Indigenous Reservations and Gender Parity in Bolivia.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 1(1): 425.
Hughes, Melanie M. 2011. “Intersectionality, Quotas, and Minority Women's Political Representation Worldwide.” American Political Science Review 105(3): 604–20.
Hughes, Melanie, Krook, Mona Lena, and Paxton, Pamela. 2012. “Transnational Women's Activism and the Global Diffusion of Gender Quotas.” Working Paper under review.
Iversen, Torben, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2008. “Work and Power: The Connection Between Female Labor Force Participation and Female Political Representation.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 479–95.
Iversen, Torben, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2010. Women, Work, and Politics: The Political Economy of Gender Equality. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Jones, Mark P. 2009. “Gender Quotas, Electoral Laws, and the Election of Women: Evidence from the Latin American Vanguard.” Comparative Political Studies 42(1): 5681.
Kolinsky, Eva. 1991. “Political Participation and Parliamentary Careers: Women's Quotas in West Germany.” West European Politics 14(1): 5672.
Krook, Mona Lena. 2007. “Gender and Political Institutions: Implementing Quotas for Women in Politics.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, August 30-September 2, 2007.
Krook, Mona Lena. 2009. Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide. New York: Oxford University Press.
Krook, Mona Lena, and O'Brien, Diana Z.. 2010. “The Politics of Group Representation: Quotas for Women and Minorities Worldwide.” Comparative Politics 42(3): 253–72.
Krook, Mona Lena, O'Brien, Diana Z., and Swip, Krista M.. 2010. “Military Invasion and Women's Political Representation.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 12(1): 6679.
Lijphart, Arend. 2004. “Constitutional Choices for New Democracies.” Journal of Democracy 15(2): 96109.
Longman, Timothy. 2006. “Rwanda: Achieving Equality or Serving an Authoritarian State?” In Women in African Parliaments, ed. Britton, Hannah and Bauer, Gretchen. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Lovenduski, Joni, and Norris, Pippa, eds. 1993. Gender and Party Politics. London: Sage.
Matland, Richard. 1993. “Institutional Variables Affecting Female Representation in National Legislatures: The Case of Norway.” Journal of Politics 55(3): 737–55.
Matland, Richard. 1998. “Women's Legislative Representation in National Legislatures: A Comparison of Democracies in Developed and Developing Countries.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 28(1): 109–25.
Matland, Richard, and Studlar, Donley T.. 1996. “The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single Member and Multi-Member Districts.” Journal of Politics 58(3): 707–33.
Meier, Petra. 2004. “The Mutual Contagion Effect of Legal and Party Quotas: A Belgian Perspective.” Party Politics 10(5): 583600.
Moser, Robert G. 2001. “The Effects of Electoral Systems on Women's Representation in Post-Communist States.” Electoral Studies 20(3): 353–69.
Moser, Robert G. 2008. “Electoral Systems and the Representation of Ethnic Minorities: Evidence from Russia.” Comparative Politics 40(3): 273–92.
Moser, Robert G., and Scheiner, Ethan. 2012. Electoral Systems and Political Context: How the Effects of Rules Vary Across New and Established Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Norris, Pippa. 2004. Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Paxton, Pamela, and Hughes, Melanie M.. 2007. Women, Politics and Power: A Global Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Reynolds, Andrew. 2005. “Reserved Seats in National Legislatures: A Research Note.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 30(2): 301–10.
Reynolds, Andrew. 2010. “Electoral Democratization in Nepal.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 40(3): 509–19.
Reynolds, Andrew. 2011. Designing Democracy in a Dangerous World. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rigby, Andrew. 2000. “Lebanon: Patterns of Confessional Politics.” Parliamentary Affairs 53(1): 169–90.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2009. “Making Quotas Work: The Effect of Gender Quota Laws on the Election of Women.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 34(1): 528.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A., Malecki, Michael, and Crisp, Brian. 2010. “Candidate Gender and Electoral Success in Single Transferable Vote Systems.” British Journal of Political Science 40(3): 693709.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A., and Mishler, William. 2005. “An Integrated Model of Women's Representation.” Journal of Politics 67(2): 407–28.
Strolovitch, Dara Z. 2006. “Do Interest Groups Represent the Disadvantaged? Advocacy at the Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender.” Journal of Politics 68(4): 893908.
Towns, Ann E. 2010. Women and States: Norms and Hierarchies in International Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van Cott, Donna. 2005. “Building Inclusive Democracies: Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Minorities in Latin America.” Democratization 12(5): 820–37.
Waylen, Georgina. 2007. Engendering Transitions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed