Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Americas’ More Perfect Unions: New Institutional Insights from Comparative Political Theory

  • Joshua Simon

Abstract

The disparities in per-capita wealth and national productivity that divide the United States and Latin America today have often been understood as results of institutional variations introduced during each region's period of imperial rule. According to this interpretation, path-dependent processes preserved institutions installed by Britain, Spain, and Portugal across the centuries, propagating their positive or negative economic effects, and eventually producing a marked “development gap” in the hemisphere. This article aims to improve this account by highlighting the direct and indirect economic effects of the success or failure of the political unions established after independence in both the United States and Latin America. It demonstrates that influential political theorists throughout the hemisphere understood the developmental advantages to be gained from unifying former colonies and employing the political authority newly at their disposal to abolish the stifling institutional legacies of European rule, suggesting that if Spanish America's unions had endured, or conversely, if the United States had collapsed, the two regions' economies might not have diverged as dramatically as they subsequently did. This illustrates an important contribution that the emerging subfield of “comparative political theory” can make to comparative political science in general, and to the new institutionalism in particular, by providing uniquely direct insight into the choices available to political actors in consequential moments of institutional genesis and change, and revealing the contingency of institutional variations that might otherwise appear inevitable.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James A.. 2001. “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation.” American Economic Review 91(5): 1369–401.
Acemoglu, Daron. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 117(4): 1231–94.
Acemoglu, Daron, and Robinson, James. 2012. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Publishers.
Ackerly, Brooke A. 2005. “Is Liberalism the Only Way toward Democracy? Confucianism and Democracy.” Political Theory 33(4): 547–76.
Ackerman, Bruce. 2005. The Failure of the Founding Fathers: Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy.(Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Adelman, Jeremy. 1999. Republic of Capital: Buenos Aires and the Legal Transformation of the Atlantic World. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Aguilar, José Antonio, and Rojas, Rafael, eds. 2002. El republicanism en hispanoamérica: ensayos de historia intellectual y política. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Economica.
Alamán, Lucas. 1968. Historia de Méjico. 5 vols., 5th ed.Mexico City: Editorial Jus.
Alesina, Alberto, and Spolaore, Enrico. 2003. The Size of Nations. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. ed. London: Verso.
Armitage, David. 2004. “Empire and Liberty: A Republican Dilemma.” In Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, ed. Van Gelderen, Martin and Skinner, Quentin. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Balogh, Brian. 2009. A Government Out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth Century America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Banning, Lance. 1978. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Belgrano, Manuel. 1954. Escritos Económicos. Weinberg, Gregorio, ed. Buenos Aires: Editorial Raigal.
Benson, , Lee, Nettie, ed. 1966. Mexico and the Spanish Cortes, 1810–1822 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966).
Bentham, Jeremy. 18381843. The Works of Jeremy Bentham. Bowring, John, ed. 11 vols. Edinburgh: William Tait.
Bethell, Leslie. 1970. The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade: Britain, Brazil, and the Slave Trade Question, 1807–1869. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Billias, George Athan. 2009. American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World, 1776–1789: A Global Perspective. New York: NYU Press.
Bolívar, Simón. 1950. Obras Completas. Lecuna, Vicente and Nazaris, Esther Barret de, eds., 2nd edition, 3 vols. Havana: Editorial Lex.
Bolívar, Simón. 2009. Doctrina del Libertador. Pérez Vila, Manuel, ed. 3rd ed. Caracas: Biblioteca Ayacucho.
Bolton, Patrick, and Roland, Gérard. 1997. “The Breakup of Nations: A Political Economy Analysis.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(4): 1057–90.
Bolton, Patrick, Roland, Gérard, and Spolaore, Enrico. 1996. “Economic Theories of the Break-up and Integration of NationsEuropean Economic Review 40: 697705.
Brading, David. 1991. The First America: The Spanish Monarchy, Creole Patriots, and the Liberal State, 1492–1867. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Breña, Roberto. 2006. El Primer Liberalismo Español y los Procesos de Emancipación de América, 1808–1824: Una Revisión Historiográfica del Liberalismo Hispánico. Mexico City: El Colegio de México.
Bushnell, David. 1970. The Santander Regime in Gran Colombia. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bushnell, David. 1976. “Los usos del modelo: La Generacion de la Independencia y la Imagen de Norteamerica.” Revista de Historia de América 82: 727.
Bushnell, David, and Macaulay, Neill. 1994. The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Capoccia, Giovanni, and Daniel Kelemen, R.. 2007. “The Study of Critical Junctures: Theory, Narrative, and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutionalism.” World Politics 59(3): 341–69.
Chávez Frías, Hugo. 2001. “Speech delivered at the Third Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Association of Caribbean States,” Isla de Margarita, Venezuela, 11 December 2001. http://www.alianzabolivariana.org (accessed May 23, 2014).
Chávez Frías, Hugo, and Harnecker, Marta. 2005. Understanding the Venezuelan Revolution: Hugo Chávez talks to Marta Harnecker. Trans. Boudin, Chesa. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Ciccariello-Maher, George. 2013. We Created Chávez: A People’s History of the Venezuelan Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Clemens, Elisabeth S., and Cook, James M.. 1999. “Politics and Institutionalism: Explaining Durability and Change.” Annual Review of Sociology 25: 441–66.
Coatsworth, John H. 1993. “Notes on the Comparative Economic History of Latin America and the United States.” In Development and Underdevelopment in America: Contrasts of Economic Growth in North and Latin America in Historical Perspective, ed. Bernecker, Walther L. and Tobler, Hans Werner, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Collier, Ruth Berins, and Collier, David. 2002. Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. 2nd ed.Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.
Dahl, Robert A., and Tufte, Edward R.. 1973. Size and Democracy. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.
Dallmayr, Fred. 2004. “Beyond Monologue: For a Comparative Political Theory.” Perspectives on Politics 2(2): 249–57.
Diamond, Jared. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton.
de la Reza, Germán A. 2009. La invención de la paz. De la república cristiana del Duque de Sully a la Sociedad de Naciones de Simón Bolívar. Mexico City: Ediciones Siglo XXI.
Edling, Max M. 2007. A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U.S. Constitution and the Making of the American State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Edling, Max M. “‘So Immense a Power in the Affairs of War’: Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit.” William and Mary Quarterly 64(2): 287326.
Elkins, Stanley, and McKitrick, Eric. 1993. The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788–1800. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elliott, J.H. 1992. “A Europe of Composite Monarchies.” Past and Present 137: 4871.
Elliott, J. H. 2006. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492–1830. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Engerman, Stanley L. 1980. “Counterfactuals and the New Economic History.” Inquiry 23(2): 157–72.
Engerman, Stanley L., and Sokoloff, Kenneth L.. 1997. “Factor Endowments, Institutions, and Differential Paths of Growth among New World Economies.” In How Latin America Fell Behind, ed. Haber, Stephen H.. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Engerman, Stanley L. 2000. “Institutions, Factor Endowments, and Paths of Development in the New World.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(3): 217–32.
Euben, Roxanne L. 1999. Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Evans, Peter. 1995. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fearon, James D. 1991. “Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science.” World Politics 43: 169195.
Ferguson, Niall. 1999. “Introduction.” In Virtual History, ed. Niall Ferguson. New York: Basic Books.
Freeden, Michael, and Vincent, Andrew. 2013. “Introduction: The Study of Comparative Political Thought.” In Comparative Political Thought: Theorizing Practices, ed. Freeden, Michael and Vincent, Andrew. Oxford: Routledge.
Gargarella, Roberto. 2005. Los Fundamentos Legales de la Desigualdad: El Constitucionalismo en América, 1776–1860. Madrid: Siglo XXI.
Gobat, Michel. 2013. “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race.” American Historical Review 118(5): 1345–75.
Godrej, Farah. 2009. “Towards a Cosmopolitan Political Thought: The Hermeneutics of Interpreting the Other.” Polity 41(2): 135–65.
Grandin, Greg. 2006. “Your Americanism and Mine: Americanism and Anti‐Americanism in the Americas.” American Historical Review 111(4): 1042–66.
Greene, Jack P. 1986. Peripheries and Center: Constitutional Development in the Extended Polities of the British Empire and the United State, 1607–1788. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Guerra, François-Xavier. 2011. Modernidad e Independencias: Ensayos Sobre Las Revoluciones Hispánicas. Vol. 386. Encuentro.
Hale, Charles A. 1968. Mexican Liberalism in the Age of Mora, 1821–1853. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Halperín Donghi, Tulio. 1975. Politics, Economics, and Society in Argentina in the Revolutionary Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, Peter A., and Taylor, Rosemary C.R.. 1996. “Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms.” Political Studies 64: 936–57.
Hamilton, Alexander. 1961–1987. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. Syrett, Harold C., ed. 27 vols. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hamilton, Alexander. 2001. Writings. Freeman, Joanne B., ed. New York: Library of America.
Hamilton, Alexander, Madison, James, and Jay, John. 2003. The Federalist, with Letters of ‘Brutus.’ Ball, Terence, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harris, Jonathan. 1998. “Bernardino Rivadavia and Benthamite ‘Discipleship.’” Latin American Research Review 33(1): 129–49.
Henderson, Timothy. 2007. A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States. New York: Hill and Wang.
Hendrickson, David C. 2003. Peace Pact: The Lost World of the American Founding. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Hendrickson, David C. 2009. Union, Nation, or Empire: The American Debate over International Relations, 1789–1941. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Hofstadter, Richard. 1969. The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780–1840. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Howe, Daniel Walker. 2007. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Humboldt, Alexander von. 1822–1836. Ensayo Político sobre Nuevo España. 3 vols. 3rd edTrans. (to Spanish) Arnao, Vicente Gonzalez. Paris: Libreria de Lecointe.
Jefferson, Thomas. 1984.Writings. Petersen, Merrill D., ed., New York: Library of America.
Jenco, Leigh Kathryn. 2007. “’What Does Heaven Ever Say?’ A Methods-centered Approach to Cross-cultural Engagement.” American Political Science Review 101(4): 741–55.
John, Richard R. 1997. “Governmental Institutions as Agents of Change: Rethinking American Political Development in the Early Republic, 1787–1835.” Studies in American Political Development 11: 347–80.
John, Richard R. 2006. “Ruling Passions: Political Economy in Nineteenth-Century America.” In Ruling Passions: Political Economy in Nineteenth-Century America, ed. John, Richard R.. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.
Johnson, Chalmers. 1982. MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press.
Kolesar, Robert J. 1990. “North American Constitutionalism and Spanish America.” In American Constitutionalism Abroad, ed. Athan Billias, George. New York: Greenwood Press.
Kulikoff, Allan. 1992. The Agrarian Origins of American Capitalism. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
LaCroix, Allison L. 2010. The Ideological Origins of American Federalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lalonde, Suzanne. 2002. Determining Boundaries in a Conflicted World: The Role of Uti Possedeitis. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Landes, David S. 1998. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. New York: W.W. Norton.
Lange, Matthew, Mahoney, James, and Hau, Matthias vom. 2006. “Colonialism and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Spanish and British Colonies.” American Journal of Sociology 111(5): 1412–62.
La Porta, Rafael, Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio, and Shleifer, Andrei. 2008. “The Economic Consequences of Legal Origins.” Journal of Economic Literature 46(2): 285332.
Lastarria, José Victorino, Covarrubias, Álvaro, María, Domingo Santa, and Mackenna, Benjamín Vicuña, eds. 2013. La Patria Comun: Pensamiento Americanista en el Siglo XIX. Santiago: LOM Ediciones.
Lebow, Richard Ned. 2000. “What’s So Different about a Counterfactual?World Politics 52: 550585.
Leff, Nathaniel H. 1997. “Economic Development in Brazil, 1822–1913.” In How Latin America Fell Behind: Essays on the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico, 1800–1914, ed. Haber, Stephen. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Levy, Jacob T. 2006. “Beyond Publius: Montesquieu, Liberal Republicanism and the Small-Republic Thesis.” History of Political Thought 27(1): 5090.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1963. The First New Nation: The United States in Historical and Comparative Perspective. New York: Basic Books.
Lynch, John. 2006. Bourbon Spain, 1700–1808. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Lynch, John. 1986. Simón Bolívar: A Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Macaulay, Neill. 1986. Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal, 1798–1834. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
MacLachlan, Colin M. 1988. Spain’s Empire in the New World: The Role of Ideas in Institutional and Social Change. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mahoney, James. 2000. “Path Dependence in Historical Sociology.” Theory and Society 29: 507–48.
Mahoney, James. 2010. Colonialism and Postcolonial Development: Spanish America in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mahoney, James, and Goertz, Gary. 2004. “The Possibility Principle: Choosing Negative Cases in Comparative Research.” American Political Science Review 98(4): 653659.
Mahoney, James, and Thelen, Kathleen, eds. 2010. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott. 2012. “From Representative Democracy to Participatory Competitive Authoritarianism: Hugo Chávez and Venezuelan Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 10(4): 955–67.
Majewski, John. 2009. Modernizing a Slave Economy: The Economic Vision of the Confederate Nation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Mantena, Karuna. 2012. “Another Realism: The Politics of Gandhian Nonviolence.” American Political Science Review 106(2): 455–70.
March, Andrew F. 2009a. Islam and Liberal Citizenship: The Search for an Overlapping Consensus. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
March, Andrew F. 2009b. “What Is Comparative Political Theory?Review of Politics 71(4): 531–65.
Martí, José. 2005. Nuestra América. Caracas: Fundación Biblioteca Ayacucho.
McDonald, Forrest. 1979. Alexander Hamilton: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton.
McFarlane, Anthony. 1987. “Economía política y política económica en Colombia, 1819–1850.” In America Latina: Dallo Stato Coloniale allo Stato Nazione, ed. Annino, Antonio. 2 vols. Milan: Franco Angeli.
McKennan, Theodora L. 1978. “Jeremy Bentham and the Colombian Liberators.” The Americas 34(2): 460–75.
McPherson, James. 1988. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Méndez Reyes, Salvador. 1996. El Hispanoamericanismo de Lucas Alamán, 1823–1853. Toluca: Universidad Autonomo del Estado de Mexico.
Miller, Jonathan M. 1997. “The Authority of a Foreign Talisman: A Study of U.S. Constitutional Practice as Authority in Nineteenth Century Argentina and the Argentine Elite’s Leap of Faith.” American University Law Review 46(5): 1483–572.
Mora, José María Luis. 1987. Obras Completas. Lillian Briseño Senosian, Laura Solares Robles, and Laura Suárez de la Torre, eds. 8 vols. Mexico City: Secretaría de Educación Pública.
Moreno, Mariano. 2007. Plan de Operaciones y Otros Escritos. Ed. Varela, Gustavo. La Plata: Terramar.
North, Douglass C. 1989. “Institutions and Economic Growth: An Historical Introduction.” World Development 17(9): 1319–32.
North, Douglass C 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C. 1991. “Institutions.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 5(1): 97112.
North, Douglass C., Summerhill, William, and Weingast, Barry R.. 2000. “Order, Disorder and Economic Change: Latin America vs. North America.” In Governing for Prosperity, ed. Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de and Root, Hilton. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
North, Douglass C., and Thomas, Robert Paul. 1973. The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ochoa Espejo, Paulina. 2012. “Paradoxes of Popular Sovereignty: A View from Spanish America.” Journal of Politics 74(4): 1053–65.
O’Neill, Jim. 2001. “Building Better Global Economic BRICsGoldman Sachs Global Economics Paper (66).
Onis, Ziya. 1991. “The Logic of the Developmental State.” Comparative Politics 24(1): 109–26.
Orren, Karen, and Skowronek, Stephen. 2004. The Search for American Political Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Parel, Anthony J. 2003. “The Comparative Study of Political Philosophy.” In, eds., Comparative Political Philosophy: Studies under the Upas Tree, ed. Parel, Anthony J. and Keith, Ronald C.. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Phillips, Nicola. 2005. “U.S. Power and the Politics of Economic Governance in the Americas.” Latin American Politics & Society 47(4): 125.
Pierson, Paul. 2000. “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics.” American Political Science Review 94(2): 251–67.
Pierson, Paul 2004. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Pocock, J.G.A. 1975. The Machiaivellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro. 2008. “The Economic Consequences of Independence in Latin America.” In, The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America, ed. Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, Coatsworth, John H., and Cortes-Conde, Roberto. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Prebisch, Raúl. 1959. “El Mercado Común Latinoamericano.” Santiago: CEPAL.
Przeworski, Adam. 2004. “The Last Instance: Are Institutions the Primary Cause of Development?European Journal of Sociology 45(2): 165–88.
Przeworski, Adam, and Curvale, Carolina. 2008. “Does Politics Explain the Economic Gap between the United States and Latin America?” In Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, ed. Fukuyama., FrancisOxford: Oxford University Press.
Rahe, Paul A. 1992. Republics Ancient and Modern: Classical Republicanism and the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Riesman, Janet A. 1987. “Money, Credit, and Federalist Political Economy.” In Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity, ed. Beeman, Richard, Botein, Stephen, and Carter, Edward C. II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Rivera, Magdalena, ed. 1987. Memorias de los Ministros del interior y del exterior. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Estudios Históricos de la Revolución Mexicana.
Rodríguez, O., Jaime, E. 1998. The Independence of Spanish America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Romero, José Luis, and Romero, Luis Alberto, eds. 1977. Pensamiento Político de la Emancipación. 2 vols. Caracas: Biblioteca Ayacucho.
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich and Evans, Peter B..1985. “The State and Economic Transformation: Toward an Analysis of the Conditions Underlying Effective Intervention.” In, Bringing the State Back In, ed. Evans, Peter B., Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Skocpol, Theda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2001. “Tropical Underdevelopment.” NBER Working Paper 8119. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Shklar, Judith N. 1990. “Montesquieu and the New Republicanism.” In, Machiavelli and Republicanism, ed. Bock, Gisela, Skinner, Quentin, and Viroli, Maurizio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Simon, Joshua. 2012a. “Simón Bolívar’s Republican Imperialism: Another Ideology of American Independence.” History of Political Thought 33(2): 280304.
Simon, Joshua. 2012b. “The Ideology of Creole Revolution: Ideas of American Independence in Comparative Perspective” Ph.D.diss., Yale University.
Skinner, Quentin. 1998. Liberty Before Liberalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, Merritt Roe. Harpers Ferry and the New Technology: The Challenge of Change. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Streeck, Wolfgang, and Thelen, Kathleen, eds. 2005. Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stevens, Donald Fithian. 1991. The Origins of Instability in Early Republican Mexico. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Tetlock Philip, E., and Belkin, Aaron, eds. 1996. Counterfactual Thought Experiments in World Politics: Logical, Methodological, and Psychological Perspectives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Thelen, Kathleen. 2003. “How Institutions Evolve: Insights from Comparative Historical Analysis.” In Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, ed. Mahoney, James and Rueschemeyer, Dietrich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. 2004. Democracy in America. Trans. Goldhammer, Arthur. New York: Library of America.
Tucker, Robert C., ed. 1972. The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: In Los Retornos de Ulises: Una Antología de José Vasconcelos, ed. Christopher Domínguez Michael. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Viotti da Costa, Emilia. 2000. The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories. Revised ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Von Vacano, Diego A. 2012. The Color of Citizenship: Race, Modernity, and Latin American/Hispanic Political Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Waldner, David. 1999. State Building and Late Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Williams, Mark Eric. 2011. “The New Balancing Act: International Relations Theory and Venezuela’s Foreign Policy.” In The Revolution in Venezuela: Social and Political Change under Chávez, ed. Eastwood, Jonathan and Ponniah, Thomas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Williams, Melissa S., and Warren, Mark E.. 2014. “A Democratic Case for Comparative Political Theory.” Political Theory 42(1): 2657.
Wilpert, Gregory. 2007. Changing Venezuela by Taking Power: The History and Policies of the Chávez Government. London: Verso.
Wood, Gordon. 2009. Empire Of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
World, Bank. 2000. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Zea, Leopoldo. 1999. “Integración. El Gran Desafío para Latinoamérica.” In Latinoamerica: Cultura de Culturas, ed. Zea, Leopoldo and Anaya, Mario Magallon. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

The Americas’ More Perfect Unions: New Institutional Insights from Comparative Political Theory

  • Joshua Simon

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed