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Spiritual care needs among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe chronic heart failure: An observational study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 October 2022

Zhangyi Wang
Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
Yang Yang
Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
Yue Zhu
Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
Mengru Liu
School of Nursing, Huzhou University, Huzhou, Zhejiang, China
Xiqun Zhao
College of Culture and Health Communication, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
Luwei Xiao
School of Nursing, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China
Yajun Zhang
Operating Room, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
Facun Liang
School of Nursing, Huzhou University, Huzhou, Zhejiang, China
Xiaoli Pang
Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
Zhihua Yang
Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
Huiying Weng*
Intensive Care Unit (ICU), The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou University, Huzhou, Zhejiang, China
Author for correspondence: Huiying Weng, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou University, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000, China. Email:



To investigate the spiritual care needs and their attributes among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe chronic heart failure (CHF) based on the Kano model, in order to provide a reference for improving the quality and satisfaction of spiritual care.


An observational design was implemented, and the STROBE Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Scale, and the Kano model–based Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Attributes Scale were used. A convenience sample of 451 patients were selected from 2 hospitals. Descriptive statistics, and Kano model were used to analyze the data.


The total score of spiritual care needs was 29.95 ± 7.51. Among the 12 items, 3 items were attractive attributes, all of which were located in Reserving Zone IV; 5 items were one-dimensional attributes, of which 3 were located in Predominance Zone I and 2 were located in Improving Zone II; 2 items were must-be attributes, all of which were located in Improving Zone II; and 2 items were indifference attributes, all of which were located in Secondary Improving Zone III.

Significance of results

The spiritual care needs among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe CHF were moderate. The must-be and one-dimensional attributes mainly focus on “creating a good atmosphere” and “sharing self-perception” dimensions, while attractive attributes mainly focus on “sharing self-perception” and “helping thinking” dimensions. It is suggested that hospital authority should develop and innovate attractive attributes on the basis of maintaining and perfecting must-be and one-dimensional attributes, and objectively analyze and optimize indifference attributes.

Original Article
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press.

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