Translocation and reintroduction are used to reduce extinction risk associated with a small population and range size in threatened mammal species. We evaluated the outcome of a reintroduction of the bridled nailtail wallaby Onychogalea fraenata to Avocet Nature Refuge, a private refuge in central Queensland, Australia. This macropod was also reintroduced to Idalia National Park in western Queensland in 1996 and occurs in one natural population in central Queensland. We estimated population growth, adult and juvenile survival, and distribution changes since the last release of O. fraenata to Avocet in 2005, and evaluated female reproductive success and health. Although animals were in good condition, population size was a tenth of that of the 1996 Idalia reintroduction reported after 3 years and, unlike at Idalia, juvenile survival at Avocet was low. The likely causes are consistent with predictors of translocation and reintroduction failures in mammals. These are predation, the small number of individuals in each release, the likely suboptimal health status of reintroduced individuals, drought, and possibly lack of dispersal from the small area of preferred habitat. The lessons of this reintroduction are that future attempts are likely to have the best chance of success if they occur in non-drought years, at sites with large, non-fragmented areas of brigalow forest, involve the release of large groups of animals together, and are accompanied by intensive, long-term baiting to control introduced predators.