Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of livestock on guanaco Lama guanicoe density, movements and habitat selection in a forest–grassland mosaic in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

  • Claudio A. Moraga (a1), Martín C. Funes (a2), J. Cristóbal Pizarro (a1), Cristóbal Briceño (a1) and Andrés J. Novaro (a3)...

Abstract

Locally abundant ungulates often come into conflict with human activities. After a population collapse that reached its nadir in the 1970s, the guanaco Lama guanicoe population in Tierra del Fuego, Chile, recovered and is now in conflict with sheep ranching and commercial logging. We studied the effects of livestock density and environmental factors on guanaco abundance and spatial ecology, using seasonal counts and radio-telemetry in a private protected area (Karukinka) and neighbouring ranches in a forest–grassland mosaic in Tierra del Fuego. Guanaco density was highest in low-elevation areas with more grassland cover and little snow accumulation in winter. In low-elevation areas, guanaco density decreased with increasing livestock density. Radio-tracked guanacos exhibited a partial migration pattern: two individuals migrated seasonally, selecting grasslands and avoiding forests mainly in summer, whereas six sedentary individuals used habitats according to their availability. Migratory guanacos spent the summer in Karukinka and winter on nearby ranches. High sheep densities and poor range condition on the ranches reduce key forage resources available to guanacos and may promote use of forests by guanacos, affecting forest regeneration and increasing conflict with logging. Current guanaco harvest by loggers may fail to reduce the impact of guanacos on logged-forest regeneration if guanaco spatial ecology and sheep management are not considered. Our results provide insight into the interactions among guanacos, forests and livestock ranching, and may be used to reduce conflicts and guide conservation in the Fuegian ecosystem.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of livestock on guanaco Lama guanicoe density, movements and habitat selection in a forest–grassland mosaic in Tierra del Fuego, Chile
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of livestock on guanaco Lama guanicoe density, movements and habitat selection in a forest–grassland mosaic in Tierra del Fuego, Chile
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of livestock on guanaco Lama guanicoe density, movements and habitat selection in a forest–grassland mosaic in Tierra del Fuego, Chile
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

(Corresponding author) E-mail cmoraga@ufl.edu

References

Hide All
Aagesen, D. (2000) Crisis and conservation at the end of the world: sheep ranching in Argentine Patagonia. Environmental Conservation, 27, 208215.
Baldi, R., Albon, S.D. & Elston, D.A. (2001) Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia. Oecologia, 129, 561570.
Baldi, R., Pelliza-Sbriller, A., Elston, D.A. & Albon, S.D. (2004) High potential for competition between guanacos and sheep in Patagonia. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 924938.
Ball, J.P., Nordengren, C. & Wallin, K. (2001) Partial migration by large ungulates: characteristics of seasonal moose Alces alces ranges in northern Sweden. Wildlife Biology, 7, 3947.
Bank, M.S., Sarno, R.J. & Franklin, W.L. (2003) Spatial distribution of guanaco mating sites in southern Chile: conservation implications. Biological Conservation, 112, 427434.
Berger, J. (2004) The last mile: how to sustain long-distance migration in mammals. Conservation Biology, 18, 320331.
Boldt, A. & Ingold, P. (2005) Effects of air traffic, snow cover and weather on altitudinal short-term and medium-term movements of female Alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra in winter. Wildlife Biology, 11, 351362.
Bolger, D.T., Newmark, W.D., Morrison, T.A. & Doak, D.F. (2008) The need for integrative approaches to understand and conserve migratory ungulates. Ecology Letters, 11, 6377.
Bridges, E.L. (1948) Uttermost Part of the Earth. Holder and Stoughton, London, UK.
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. & Thomas, L. (2001) Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Cavieres, L.A. & Fajardo, A. (2005) Browsing by guanaco (Lama guanicoe) on Nothofagus pumilio forest gaps in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Forest Ecology and Management, 204, 237248.
Cingolani, A.M., Anchorena, J. & Collantes, M.B. (1998) Landscape heterogeneity and long-term animal production in Tierra del Fuego. Journal of Range Management, 51, 7987.
Collado, L., Farina, S., Jaras, F. & Vargas, H. (2008) Monitoreo del estado de intervención y de la regeneración de Nothofagus pumilio en un plan de manejo forestal en el ecotono estepa-bosque de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Bosque, 29, 8590.
CONAMA (2009) Ficha de antecedentes de especie Lama guanicoe (Miller, 1776). Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies Silvestres, 5to proceso de clasificación. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Gobierno de Chile. Http://www.mma.gob.cl/clasificacionespecies/ficha5proceso/fichas_actualizadas/Lama_guanicoe_P05R7-9_RCE.doc [accessed 25 March 2011].
de La Tour, G.D. (1954) The guanaco. Oryx, 2, 273279.
Dobson, A.J. (2002) An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models, 2nd edition. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, USA.
Dodds, P. (1997) Efecto del ramoneo de guanacos (Lama guanicoe) sobre la regeneración de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) en Russffin, Tierra del Fuego. Forestry thesis. Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Donadio, E. & Buskirk, S.W. (2006) Flight behavior in guanacos and vicuñas in areas with and without poaching in western Argentina. Biological Conservation, 127, 139145.
Donoso, C. & Lara, A. (1996) Utilización de los bosques nativos en Chile: pasado, presente y futuro. In Ecología de los bosques nativos de Chile (eds Armesto, J.J., Villagrán, C. & Kalin Arroyo, M.), pp. 363387. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, Chile.
Franklin, W.L. (1983) Contrasting socioecologies of South America's wild camelids: the vicuña and the guanaco. In Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior (eds Eisenberg, J.F. & Kleiman, D.), pp. 573629. American Society of Mammalogists, Shippensburg, USA.
Gordon, I.J. (2009) What is the future for wild, large herbivores in human-modified agricultural landscapes? Wildlife Biology, 15, 19.
Graham, R.T., Jain, T.B. & Kingery, J.L. (2010) Ameliorating conflicts among deer, elk, cattle and/or other ungulates and other forest uses: a synthesis. Forestry, 83, 245255.
Harris, G., Thirgood, S., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Cromsigt, J.P.G.M. & Berger, J. (2009) Global decline in aggregated migrations of large terrestrial mammals. Endangered Species Research, 7, 5576.
Hebblewhite, M., Merrill, E. & McDermid, G. (2008) A multi-scale test of the forage maturation hypothesis in a partially migratory ungulate population. Ecological Monographs, 78, 141166.
Hooge, P. N. & Eichenlaub, B. (2000) Animal Movement Extension to ArcView. Version 2.0. Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, USA.
Huber, U.M. & Markgraf, V. (2003) European impact on fire regimes and vegetation dynamics at the steppe-forest ecotone of southern Patagonia. The Holocene, 13, 567579.
Jurgensen, T.E. (1985) Seasonal territoriality in a migratory guanaco population. MSc thesis. Iowa State University, Ames, USA.
Karesh, W.B., Uhart, M.M., Dierenfeld, E.S., Braselton, W.E., Torres, A., House, C. et al. . (1998) Health evaluation of free-ranging guanaco (Lama guanicoe). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 29, 134141.
Lara, A. & Cruz, G. (1987) Vegetación del área de uso agropecuario de la XII Región, Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena. INIA (Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias), Santiago, Chile.
Larson, M.A. (2001) A catalog of software to analyze radiotelemetry data. In Radio Tracking and Animal Populations (eds Millspaugh, J.J. & Marzluff, J.M.), pp. 397421. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.
Laundré, J.W. (2010) Behavioral response races, predator–prey shell games, ecology of fear, and patch use of pumas and their ungulate prey. Ecology, 91, 29953007.
Lesage, L., Crête, M., Huot, J., Dumont, A. & Ouellet, J.-P. (2000) Seasonal home range size and philopatry in two northern white-tailed deer populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78, 19301940.
Madhusudan, M.D. (2004) Recovery of wild large herbivores following livestock decline in a tropical Indian wildlife reserve. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 858869.
Manly, B.F.J., McDonald, L.L., Thomas, D.L., McDonald, T.L. & Erickson, W.P. (2002) Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies, 2nd edition. Kluwer, Boston, USA.
Martínez-Pastur, G., Peri, P.L., Fernández, M.C., Staffieri, G. & Rodríguez, D. (1999) Desarrollo de la regeneración a lo largo del ciclo del manejo forestal de un bosque de Nothofagus pumilo: 2. Incidencia del ramoneo de Lama guanicoe . Bosque, 20, 4753.
Martinic, M. (1992) Expansión colonizadora. In Historia de la Región Magallánica, Volume I (ed. Martinic, M.), pp. 598678. Editorial Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile.
Massé, A. & Côté, S.D. (2009) Habitat selection of a large herbivore at high density and without predation: trade-off between forage and cover? Journal of Mammalogy, 90, 961970.
Mysterud, A. (1999) Seasonal migration pattern and home range of roe deer (Capreolus capreoulus) in an altitudinal gradient in southern Norway. Journal of Zoology, 247, 479486.
Ortega, I.M. & Franklin, W.L. (1995) Social organization, distribution and movements of a migratory guanaco population in the Chilean Patagonia. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 68, 489500.
Pépin, D., Adrados, C., Janeau, G., Joachim, J. & Mann, C. (2008) Individual variation in migratory and exploratory movements and habitat use by adult red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in a mountainous temperate forest. Ecological Research, 23, 10051013.
Pisano, E. (1977) Fitogeografía de Fuego-Patagonia chilena. I: Comunidades vegetales entre las latitudes 52° y 56° S. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 8, 121250.
Puig, S., Rosi, M.I., Videla, F. & Mendez, E. (2011) Summer and winter diet of the guanaco and food availability for a High Andean migratory population (Mendoza, Argentina). Mammalian Biology, 76, 727734.
Pulido, F.J., Díaz, B. & Martínez-Pastur, G. (2000) Incidencia del ramoneo del guanaco (Lama guanicoe Muller) sobre la regeneración temprana en bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp et Endl) Krasser) de Tierra del Fuego Argentina. Investigación Agraria de Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, 9, 381394.
Raedeke, K. (1979) Population dynamics and socio-ecology of the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) of Magallanes, Chile. PhD thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
Raedeke, K. (1982) Habitat use by guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and sheep on common range, Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Turrialba, 32, 309314.
Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veblen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997) Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78, 678692.
Riveros, J.C. (2004) Efecto del cerco de exclusión de guanacos (Lama guanicoe Müller) sobre el ramoneo en la regeneración de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.)), 5 años después de su establecimiento en Russfin, Tierra del Fuego. Memoria de Ingeniería Forestal. Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Rutherford, A.C. & Schmitz, O.J. (2010) Regional-scale assessment of deer impacts on vegetation within Western Connecticut, USA. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 12571263.
Saavedra, B., Simonetti, J.A. & Redford, K.H. (2011) Private conservation, the example that the Wildlife Conservation Society builds from Tierra del Fuego. In Biodiversity Conservation in the Americas: Lessons and Policy Recommendations (ed. Figueroa, E.B.), pp. 357392. Editorial FEN–Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Sarno, R.J., Bank, M.S., Stern, H.S. & Franklin, W.L. (2003) Forced dispersal of juvenile guanacos (Lama guanicoe): causes, variation, and fates of individuals dispersing at different times. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 54, 2229.
Sarno, R.J., Franklin, W.L., O'Brien, S.J. & Johnson, W.E. (2001) Patterns of mtDNA and microsatellite variation in an island and mainland population of guanacos in southern Chile. Animal Conservation, 4, 93101.
Schoen, J.W. & Kirchhoff, M.D. (1985) Seasonal distribution and home-range patterns of sitka black-tailed deer on Admiralty Island, southeast Alaska. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 49, 96103.
Schoen, J.W. & Kirchhoff, M.D. (1990) Seasonal habitat use by sitka black-tailed deer on Admiralty Island, Alaska. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 54, 371378.
Skewes, O., Gonzalez, F., Ovalle, C., Rubilar, L., Quezada., M., Jiménez, A. et al. . (1999) Manejo Productivo y Sustentable del Guanaco en Isla de Tierra del Fuego. Informe Final (Etapas II y III) Universidad de Concepción, Servicio de Gobierno Regional XII Región, Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, Chillán, Chile.
Stewart, K.M., Bowyer, R.T., Kie, J.G., Cimon, N.J. & Johnson, B.K. (2002) Temporospatial distributions of elk, mule deer, and cattle: resource partitioning and competitive displacement. Journal of Mammalogy, 83, 229244.
Texeira, M. & Paruelo, J.M. (2006) Demography, population dynamics and sustainability of the Patagonian sheep flocks. Agricultural Systems, 87, 123146.
Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Rexstad, E., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T. et al. . (2009) Distance 6.0. Release 2. Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St Andrews, UK. Http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/ [accessed 31 August 2009].
Tremblay, J.-P., Huot, J. & Potvin, F. (2007) Density-related effects of deer browsing on the regeneration dynamics of boreal forests. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 552562.
Tuhkanen, S., Kuokka, I., Hyvönen, S., Stenroos, S. & Niemelä, J. (1999) Tierra del Fuego as a target for biogeographical research in the past and present. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 19, 4107.
WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) (2006) Land cover map of Tierra del Fuego, Global Land Cover Facility Landsat 2002 Dataset. Wildlife Conservation Society, Living Landscapes Program and Chile Program, Santiago, Chile.
White, P. J., Proffitt, K.M., Mech, L.D., Evans, S.B., Cunningham, J.A. & Hamlin, K.L. (2010) Migration of northern Yellowstone elk: implications of spatial structuring. Journal of Mammalogy, 91, 827837.
Wisdom, M.J., Vavra, M., Boyd, J.M., Hemstrom, M.A., Ager, A.A. & Johnson, B.K. (2006) Understanding ungulate herbivory—episodic disturbance effects on vegetation dynamics: knowledge gaps and management needs. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34, 283292.
Young, J.K. & Franklin, W.L. (2004) Territorial fidelity of male guanacos in the Patagonia of southern Chile. Journal of Mammalogy, 85, 7278.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Effects of livestock on guanaco Lama guanicoe density, movements and habitat selection in a forest–grassland mosaic in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

  • Claudio A. Moraga (a1), Martín C. Funes (a2), J. Cristóbal Pizarro (a1), Cristóbal Briceño (a1) and Andrés J. Novaro (a3)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.