This review attempts to delineate the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of hypertension as well as the function of vitamins and minerals in the regulation of blood pressure. Physiological processes that regulate cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance impact on the control of blood pressure. Metabolic abnormalities associated with the tetrad of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, glucose intolerance and obesity share insulin resistance, which might be organ or cell specific, as an underlying feature representing different tissue manifestation of a common cellular ionic defect. As Ca is at the centre of ionic regulation of cellular functions, vitamins involved in Ca regulation have a significant role in the control of blood pressure. The endothelium-dependent vasodilator, NO, is susceptible to oxidative damage. Hence, antioxidant vitamins and related factors regulate blood pressure through protection of NO. Robust evidence for the involvement of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E in the regulation of blood pressure have been reported. The well-known roles of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Cl have been explored further. The action of various vitamins on blood pressure regulation cannot always be explained on the basis of their conventionally recognised “vitamin function”. The non-traditional functions of vitamins and their derivatives can be exploited as an adjunct to available pharmacological modalities in the treatment of hypertension.