Myelin formation and maintenance depends on the establishment of two structurally and biochemically discernible domains: (a) compact myelin, that is multilamellar stacks of plasma membrane sheets; and (b) cytoplasmic channels that border the compact myelin domains, attach them to the cell body and anchor the myelin sheath to the axonal membrane. To identify proteins involved in the organization of these domains we took advantage of the high lipid content of compact myelin to separate it cleanly from other neural membranes and then used reverse-phase HPLC coupled to Electro-Spray Double Mass Spectrometry (‘MudPIT’) to characterize the proteome of this sample. MudPIT allowed us to sidestep the bias of 2D-PAGE against either highly charged or transmembrane proteins. Thus, of 97 proteins that presented at least two, fully tryptic peptides (a stringent threshold), seven were well known myelin markers, including the mayor CNS myelin proteins: proteolipid protein and myelin basic protein, which are not resolvable by 2D-PAGE. Furthermore, we have confirmed and extended the known compact myelin proteome by 22 proteins and confirmed that CNS and PNS myelinated tracts present Sirtuin 2, a tubulin deacetylase, and Septin 7, a small GTPase that is likely to be involved in membrane and cytoplasm partitioning.