Skip to main content Accessibility help

Variations in the morphology of porosity in the Boom Clay Formation: insights from 2D high resolution BIB-SEM imaging and Mercury injection Porosimetry

  • S. Hemes (a1), G. Desbois (a1), J.L. Urai (a1), M. De Craen (a2) and M. Honty (a2)...


Boom Clay is considered as one of the potential host rocks for the disposal of high level and/or long lived radioactive waste in a geological formation in Belgium (Mol study site, Mol-1 borehole) and the Netherlands. The direct characterisation of the pore space is essential to help understand the transport properties of radionuclides in argillaceous materials.

This contribution aims to characterise and compare the morphology of the pore space in different Boom Clay samples, representing end-members with regard to mineralogy (i.e. clay content) and grain-size distribution of this formation. Broad ion beam (BIB) cross-sectioning is combined with SEM imaging of porosity and Mercury injection Porosimetry (MIP) to characterise the variability of the pore space in Boom Clay at the nm- to μm-scale within representative 2D areas and to relate microstructural observations to fluid flow properties of the bulk sample material. Segmented pores in 2D BIB surfaces are classified according to the mineralogy, generating representative datasets of up to 100,000 pores per cross-section.

Results show total SEM-resolved porosities of 10-20% and different characteristic mineral phase internal pore morphologies and intra-phase porosities.

Most of the nano-porosity resides in the clay matrix. In addition, in the silt-rich samples, larger inter-aggregate pores contribute to a major part of the resolved porosity. Pore-size distributions within the clay matrix suggest power-law behaviour of pore areas with exponents between 1.56-1.74. Mercury injection Porosimetry, with access to pore-throat diameters down to 3.6 nm, shows total interconnected porosities between 27-35 Vol.-%, and the observed hysteresis in the MIP intrusion vs. extrusion curves suggests relatively high pore-body to pore-throat ratios in Boom Clay. The difference between BIB-SEM visible and MIP measured porosities is explained by the resolution limit of the BIB-SEM method, as well as the limited size of the BIB-polished cross-section areas analysed. Compilation of the results provides a conceptual model of the pore network in fine- and coarse-grained samples of Boom Clay, where different mineral phases show characteristic internal porosities and pore morphologies and the overall pore space can be modelled based on the distribution of these mineral phases, as well as the grain-size distribution of the samples investigated.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Variations in the morphology of porosity in the Boom Clay Formation: insights from 2D high resolution BIB-SEM imaging and Mercury injection Porosimetry
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Variations in the morphology of porosity in the Boom Clay Formation: insights from 2D high resolution BIB-SEM imaging and Mercury injection Porosimetry
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Variations in the morphology of porosity in the Boom Clay Formation: insights from 2D high resolution BIB-SEM imaging and Mercury injection Porosimetry
      Available formats


Corresponding author


Hide All
Abell, A.B., Willis, K.L. & Lange, D.A., 1999. Mercury intrusion porosimetry and image analysis of cement-based materials. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 211: 3944.
Adamic, L.A. & Huberman, B.A., 2002. Zipf's law and the internet. Glottometrics 3: 143150.
Aertsens, M., Dierckx, A., Put, M., Moors, H., Janssen, K., Van Ravestyn, L., Van Gompel, M. & De Cannière, P., 2005a. Determination of the hydraulic conductivity, the product ηr of the porosity η and the retardation factor r, and the apparent diffusion coefficient Dp on Boom Clay cores from the Mol-1 drilling. Restricted Contract Report SCK-CEN-R-3503 (Mol, Belgium).
Aertsens, M., Dierckx, A., Put, M., Moors, H., Janssen, K., Van Ravestyn, L., Van Gompel, M. & De Cannière, P., 2005b. Determination of the hydraulic conductivity, ηr and the apparent diffusion coefficient on Ieper Clay and Boom Clay cores from the Doel-1 and Doel-2b drillings. Restricted Contract Report R-3589, SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium).
Aertsens, M., Van Gompel, M., De Cannière, P., Maes, N. & Dierckx, A., 2008. Vertical distribution of H14CO3 transport parameters in Boom Clay in the Mol-1 borehole (Mol, Belgium): Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33, Supplement 1 33: 6166.
Al-Mukhtar, M., Belanteur, N., Tessier, D. & Vanapalli, S.K., 1996. The fabric of a clay soil under controlled mechanical and hydraulic stress states. Applied Clay Science 11: 99115.
Baeyens, B., Maes, A. & Cremers, A., 1985. In-situ physico-chemical characterization of Boom Clay. Radioactive Waste Management and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle 6: 391408.
Bak, P., 1996. How nature works: The science of self organized criticality. Springer (New York), 212 pp.
Bartoli, F., Bird, N.R.A., Gomendy, V., Vivier, H. & Niquet, S., 1999. The relation between silty soil structures and their Mercury Porosimetry curve counterparts: Fractals and percolation. European Journal of Soil Science 50: 922.; jsessionid=7121D5405928DFEC6B06624343B10CEE.d03t03
Bell, J., Boateng, A., Olawale, O. & Roberts, D., 2011. The influence of fabric arrangement on oil sand samples from the estuarine depositional environment of the upper McMurray Formation. Search and Discovery Article 80197.
Bésuelle, P., Viggiani, G., Lenoir, N., Desrues, J. & Bornert, M., 2006. X-ray micro CT for studying strain localization in clay rocks under triaxial compression. In: Desrues, J., Viggiani, G. & Bésuelle, P. (eds): Advances in X-Ray CT for Geomaterials. 2nd International Workshop GeoX.ISTE Ltd. (London): 35–53; 453 pp.
Boisson, J.Y., 2005. Clay club catalogue of characteristics of argillaceous rocks. Report NEA No. 4436. OECD/NEA (Paris), 72 pp.
Bruggeman, C., Maes, N., Aertsens, M. & De Cannière, P., 2009. Titrated water retention and migration behaviour in Boom Clay. SFC1 level 5 report (NIROND-TR 2009-16E), ONDRAF/NIRAS (Brussels, Belgium).
Bugani, S., Modugno, F., Łucejko, J.J., Giachi, G., Cagno, S., Cloetens, P., Janssens, K. & Morselli, L., 2009. Study on the impregnation of archaeological waterlogged wood with consolidation treatments using synchrotron radiation microtomography. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395: 19771985.
Cerepi, A., Durand, C. & Brosse, E., 2002. Pore microgeometry analysis in low-resistivity sandstone reservoirs. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 35: 205-232.
Clauset, A., Shalizi, C.R. & Newman, M.E.J., 2009. Power-law distributions in empirical data. SIAM Review 51: 661703.
Cnudde, V., Dewanckele, J., Boone, M., De Kock, T., Boone, M., Brabant, L., Dusar, M., De Ceukelaire, M., De Clerq, H., Hayen, R. & Jacobs, P., 2011. High-resolution X-ray CT for 3D petrography of ferruginous sandstone for an investigation of building stone decay. Microscopy Research and Technique 74: 10061017.
De Craen, M., Swennen, R., Keppens, E., Macaulay, C.I. & Kiriakoulakis, K., 1999. Bacterially mediated formation of carbonate concretions in the Oligocene Boom Clay of northern Belgium. Journal of Sedimentary Research 69: 10981106.
De Craen, M., Delleuze, D., Volckaert, G., Sneyers, A. & Put, M., 2000. The Boom Clay as natural analogue. SCK-CEN Final report to NIRAS/ONDRAF (1997-1999) R-3444. Waste & Disposal Department SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium), 131 pp.
De Craen, M., Wang, L., Van Geet, M. & Moors, H., 2004. Geochemistry of Boom Clay pore water at the Mol site. SCK-CEN scientific report BLG-990. Waste & Disposal Department SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium), 181 pp.
Decleer, J., Viane, W. & Vandenberghe, N., 1983. Relationships between chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics of the Rupelian Boom Clay Belgium. Clay Minerals 18: 110.
Decleer, J. & Viaene, W., 1993. Rupelian Boom Clay as raw material for expanded clay manufacturing. Applied Clay Science 8: 111128.
Dehandschutter, B., Gaviglio, P., Sizun, J.P., Sintubin, M., Vandycke, S., Vandenberghe, N. & Wouters, L., 2005. Volumetric matrix strain related to intraformational faulting in argillaceous sediments. Journal of the Geological Society (London) 162: 801813.
Desbois, G., Urai, J. & Kukla, P.A., 2009. Morphology of the pore space in claystones – evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-sem observations. eEarth 4: 1522.
Desbois, G., Urai, J.L., Houben, M.E. & Sholokhova, Y., 2010a. Typology, morphology and connectivity of pore space in claystones from reference site for research using BIB, FIB and cryo-SEM methods. EPJ Web of Conferences (European Physical Journal) 6: 22005.
Desbois, G., Enzmann, F., Urai, J.L., Baerle, C., Kukla, P.A. & Konstanty, J., 2010b. Imaging pore space in tight gas sandstone reservoir: Insights from broad ion beam cross-sectioning. EPJ Web of Conferences (European Physical Journal) 6: 22022.
Desbois, G., Urai, J.L., Kukla, P.A., Konstanty, J. & Baerle, C., 2011a. Highresolution 3D fabric and porosity model in a tight gas sandstone reservoir: A new approach to investigate microstructures from mm- to nm-scale combining argon beam cross-sectioning and SEM imaging. Journal of Petroleum Sciences and Engineering 78: 243257.
Desbois, G., Urai, J., Houben, M., Hemes, S. & Klaver, J., 2011b. BIB-SEM of representative area clay structures: Insights and challenges. NEA Clay Club Workshop Proceedings – Clay Under Nano- to Microscopic resolution – NEA OECD, 09 6-8, 2011 (Karlsruhe).
Desbois, G., Urai, J., Kukla, P., Wollenberg, U., Pérez-Willard, F., Radí, Z. & Riholm, S., 2012. Distribution of brine in grain boundaries during static recrystallization in wet, synthetic halite: Insight from broad ion beam sectioning and SEM observation at cryogenic temperature. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 163: 1931.
Desbois, G., Urai, J.L., Pérez-Willard, F., Radi, Z., Offern, S., Burkart, I., Kukla, P.A. & Wollenberg, U., 2013. Argon broad ion beam tomography in a cryogenic scanning electron microscope: A novel tool for the investigation of representative microstructures in sedimentary rocks containing pore fluid. Journal of Microscopy 249 (3): 215235.
Diamond, S., 1970. Pore size distributions in clays. Clays and Clay Minerals 18: 723.
Diamond, S., 2000. Mercury porosimetry an inappropriate method for the measurement of pore size distributions in cement-based materials. Cement and Concrete Composites 30: 15171525.
ESRI, 2011. ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10. Environmental Systems Research Institute (Redlands, CA).
Fadeev, A.Y., Borisova, O.R. & Lisichkin, G.V., 1996. Fractality of porous silicas: A comparison of adsorption and porosimetry data. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 183: 15.
Friesen, W.I. & Mikula, R.J., 1987. Fractal dimensions of coal particles. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 120: 263271.
FUNMIG – Fundamental processes of radionuclide migration, 2008. PID 3.2.1 Physical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Boom Clay, Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus Clay rock samples, Contract No. FP6-516-514, 138 pp.
Gens, R., Lalieux, P., De Preter, P., Dierckx, A., Bel, J., Boyazis, J.P. & Cool, W., 2003. The Second Safety Assessment and Feasibility Interim Report (SAFIR 2) on HLW Disposal in Boom Clay: Overview of the Belgian Programme. MRS Proceedings, 807, 917 (Belgium).
Goldstein, M.L., Morris, S.A. & Yenj, G.G., 2004. Problems with fitting to the power-law distribution. European Physical Journal B 41: 255258.
Griffault, L., Merceron, T., Mossmann, J.R., Neerdael, B., De Cannière, P., Beacucaire, C., Daumas, S., Bianchi, A. & Christen, R., 1996. Participation to the project archimede-argile. EEC Contract No. FI2W-CT90-0117, final report EUR 17454, ANDRA (France).
Heath, J.E., Dewers, T.A., McPherson, B.J.O.L., Petrusak, R., Chidsey, T.C., Rinehart, A.J. & Mozley, P.S., 2011. Pore networks in continental and marine mudstones: Characteristics and controls on sealing behavior. Geosphere 7: 429454.
Hildenbrand, A. & Urai, J.L., 2003. Investigation of the morphology of pore space in mudstones – first results. Marine and Petroleum Geology 20: 11851200.
Holzer, L., Münch, B., Wegmann, M. & Gasser, P., 2006. FIB-nanotomography of particulate systems – part I: Particle shape and topology of interfaces. Journal of the American ceramic society 89: 25772585.
Holzer, L., Gasser, P., Kaech, A., Wegmann, M., Zingg, A., Wepf, R. & Münch, B., 2007. Cryo-FIB-nanotomography for quantitative analysis of particle structures in cement suspension. Journal of Microscopy 227: 216228.
Holzer, L., Münch, B., Rizzi, M., Wepf, R., Marschall, P. & Graule, T., 2010. 3D-microstructure analysis of hydrated bentonite with cryo-stabilized pore water. Applied Clay Science 47: 330342.
Holzer, L. & Cantoni, M., 2012. Review of FIB-tomography. In: Utke, I., Moshkalev, S. & Russell, P. (eds): Nanofabrication using focused ion and electron beams: Principles and applications. Oxford University Press (New York), 813 pp.
Honty, M., De Craen, M., Wang, L., Madejová, J., Czímerová, A., Pentrák, M., Stríček, I. & Van Geet, M., 2010. The effect of high ph alkaline solutions on the mineral stability of the Boom Clay – batch experiments at 60° C. Applied Geochemistry 25: 825840.
Horseman, S.T., Higgo, J.J.W., Alexander, J. & Harrington, J.F., 1996. Water, gas and solute movement through argillaceous media. The NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency) Working Group on Measurement and Physical Understanding of Groundwater Flow Through Argillaceous Media (‘Clay Club’), a subgroup of the NEA Co-ordinating Group on Site Evaluation and Design of Experiments for Radioactive Waste Disposal (SEDE), Report 96/1 OECD, Paris, 290 pp.
Houben, M.E., Desbois, G. & Urai, J.L., 2013. Pore morphology and distribution in the shaly facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland): Insights from representative 2D BIB-SEM investigations on mm to nm scale. Applied Clay Science 71: 8297.
Jackson, M.L., 1985. Soil chemical analysis – advanced course, revised 2nd edition, 11th printing. Parallel Press, University of Wisconsin – Madison Libraries (Madison, Wisconsin), 895 pp.
Janssen, C., Wirth, R., Reinicke, A., Rybacki, E., Naumann, R., Wenk, H.R. & Dresen, G., 2011. Nanoscale porosity in SAFOD core samples (San Andreas Fault). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 301: 179189.
Jin, G., 2007. Experimental validation of pore-level calculations of static and dynamic petrophysical properties of clastic rock. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 109547-MS. SPE International Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 11. 11-14, 2007 (Anaheim, California, U.S.A), 13 pp.
Johnston, D.D. & Johnson, R.J., 1987. Depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality in first Wilcox Sandstone, Livingston Field Louisiana. American Association of Petroleum Geologists 71: 11521161.
Kameda, A., Dvorkin, J., Keehm, Y., Nur, A. & Bosl, W., 2006. Permeability-porosity transforms from small sandstone fragments. Geophysics 71: N11N19.
Keller, L.M., Holzer, L., Wepf, R. & Gasser, P., 2011. 3D geometry and topology of pore pathways in Opalinus Clay: Implications for mass transport. Applied Clay Science 52: 8595.
Kemball, C., 1946. On the surface tension of Mercury. Transactions of the Faraday Society 42: 526537.
Klaver, J., Desbois, G., Urai, J.L. & Littke, R., 2012. BIB-SEM study of the pore space morphology in early mature Posidonia Shale from the Hils Area Germany. International Journal of Coal Geology 103: 1225.
Klinkenberg, M., Kaufhold, S., Dohrmann, R. & Siegesmund, S., 2009. Influence of carbonate microfabrics on the failure strength of claystones. Engineering Geology 107: 4254.
Kolor, , 2012. Autopano Giga 2.6.1 (Challes-les Eaux, France).
Korvin, G., 1992. Fractal models in the earth sciences. Elsevier (Amsterdam), 396 pp.
Laenen, B., 1997. The geochemical signature of relative sea-level cycles recognized in the Boom Clay (PhD-thesis). Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Faculteit Wetenschappen, Departement Geografie – Geologie (Leuven, Belgium), 396 pp.
Lexa, O., Štípská, P., Schulmann, K., Baratoux, L. & Kröner, A., 2005. Contrasting textural record of two distinct metamorphic events of similar p-T conditions and different durations. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 23: 649666.
Loucks, R.G., Reed, R.M., Ruppel, S.C. & Jarvie, D.M., 2009. Morphology, genesis, and distribution of nanometer-scale pores in siliceous mudstones of the Mississippian Barnett Shale. Journal of Sedimentary Research 79: 848861.
Loucks, R.G., Reed, R.M., Ruppel, S.C. & Hammes, U., 2012. Spectrum of pore types and networks in mudrocks and a descriptive classification for matrix-related mudrock pores. AAPG Bulletin 96: 10711098.
MATLAB, 2011. Version (R2011a). The MathWorks Inc. (Natick, Massachusetts U.S.A).
Mandelbrot, B., 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman (New York), 468 pp.
Matthews, G.P., Ridgway, C.J. & Spearing, M.C., 1995. Void space modeling of Mercury intrusion hysteresis in sandstone, paper coating, and other porous media. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 171: 827.
Merceron, T., 1994. Characterisation of the geochemical environment of the Boom Clay at Mol. Archimedes – clay project, Proceedings MIRAGE meeting on the Migration of Radionuclides in the Geosphere, 3rd Phase, 11. 15-17, 1994 (Brussels, Belgium).
Meyer, K., Lorenz, P., Böhl-Kuhn, B. & Klobes, P., 1994. Porous solids and their characterization methods of investigation and application. Crystal Research and Technology 29: 903930.
Moro, F. & Böhni, H., 2002. Ink-bottle effect in Mercury intrusion Porosimetry of cement-based materials. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 246: 135149.
Neuzil, C.E., 1994. How permeable are clays and shales? Water Resource Ressearch 30: 145-150.
Newman, M.E.J., 2006. Power laws, pareto distributions and zipf's law. Contemporary Physics 46: 323351.
Nicholas, M.E., Joyner, P.A., Tessem, B.M. & Olson, M.D., 1961. The effect of various gases and vapors on the surface tension of Mercury. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 65: 13731375.
ONDRAF/NIRAS, 2011. Waste plan for the long-term management of conditioned high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste and overview of related issues. Report NIROND 2011-02 E; Belgium, 255 pp.
Ortiz, L., Volckaert, G. & Mallants, D., 2002. Gas generation and migration in Boom Clay, a potential host rock formation for nuclear waste storage. Engineering Geology 64: 287296.
Pareto, V., 18961897. Cours d'économie politique. Rouge F. (Lausanne) & Pichon, F. (Paris), Vol. I-II: 430; 426 pp.
Penumadu, D. & Dean, J., 2000. Compressibility effect in evaluating the pore-size distribution of kaolin clay using mercury intrusion porosimetry. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 37 (2): 393405.
Romero, E., Gens, A. & Lloret, A., 1999. Water permeability, water retention and microstructure of unsaturated compacted Boom Clay. Engineering Geology 54: 117127.
Romero, E. & Simms, P., 2008. Microstructure investigation in unsaturated soils: A review with special attention to contribution of Mercury intrusion Porosimetry and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 26: 705727.
Ruffett, C., Gueguen, Y. & Darot, M., 1991. Complex conductivity measurements and fractal nature of porosity. Geophysics 56: 758768.
Schmidt, V. & McDonald, D.A., 1979. The role of secondary porosity in the course of sandstone diagenesis. SEPM Special Publications (Aspects of diagenesis) 26: 175-207.
Sigal, R.F., 2009. A methodology for blank and conformance corrections for high pressure Mercury Porosimetry. Measurement Science and Technology 20, 11 pp.
Sok, R.M., Varslot, T., Ghous, A., Latham, S., Sheppard, A.P. & Knackstedt, M.A., 2009. Pore scale characterization of carbonates at multiple scales: Integration of micro-CT and FIB-SEM. International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, 09., 27-30, 2009 (Noordwijk, the Netherlands), 12 pp.
Turcotte, D.L., 1997. Fractals and chaos in geology and geophysics, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK): 398 pp.
Urai, J.L., Nover, G., Zwach, C., Ondrak, R., Schöner, R. & Kroos, B.M., 2008. Transport processes. Dynamics of complex intracontinental basins: The central european basin system. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg: 367388.
Van Geet, M., Bastiaens, W. & Ortiz, L., 2008. Self-sealing capacity of argillaceous rocks: Review of laboratory results obtained from the SELFRAC project. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33: S396S406.
Vandenberghe, N., 1974. Een sedimentologische studie van de Boomse klei, doctorale verhandeling/Unpublished PhD thesis, Catholic University (K.U.) Leuven, 187 pp.
Vandenberghe, N., 1978. Sedimentology of the Boom Clay (Rupelian) in Belgium. Verhandeling Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België, Klasse Wetenschappen XL/147. Paleis der Academien (Brussels, Belgium), 137 pp.
Verhoef, E. & Schröder, T., 2011. Research Plan. OPERA-PG-COV004. COVRA N.V. (the Netherlands), 52 pp.
Verhoef, E., Neeft, E., Grupa, J. & Poley, A., 2011. Outline of a disposal in clay. OPERA-PG-COV008. COVRA N.V. (the Netherlands), 23 pp.
Washburn, E.W., 1921. The dynamics of capillary flow. Physical Review 17: 273.
Webb, P.A., 2001. An introduction to the physical characterization of materials by Mercury intrusion Porosimetry with emphasis on reduction and presentation of experimental data. Micromeritics Instrument Corporation (Norcross, Georgia, USA): 23 pp.
Wentworth, C.K., 1922. A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. The Journal of Geology 30: 377392.
Wilson, J.C. & McBride, E.F., 1988. Compaction and porosity evolution of Pliocene sandstones, Ventura Basin California. American Association of Petroleum Geologists 72: 664681.
Wouters, L., Herron, M., Abeels, V., Hagood, M. & Strobel, J., 1999. Innovative applications of dual range fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analysis of Boom Clay mineralogy. Aardkundige Mededelingen 9: 159168.
Zeelmaekers, E., 2011. Computerized qualitative and quantitative clay mineralogy: Introduction and application to known geological cases. Unpublished PhD thesis, Katholieke Universiteit (K.U.) Leuven. Groep Wetenschap en Technologie (Heverlee, Leuven), 397 pp.
Zipf, G.K., 1949. Human behaviour and the principle of least effort – an introduction to human ecology. Addison-Wesley Press (Oxford) England, 573 pp.


Variations in the morphology of porosity in the Boom Clay Formation: insights from 2D high resolution BIB-SEM imaging and Mercury injection Porosimetry

  • S. Hemes (a1), G. Desbois (a1), J.L. Urai (a1), M. De Craen (a2) and M. Honty (a2)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed