A field study was conducted to determine the size and spatial distribution of mycelial individuals of Pisolithus tinctorius at a site in NSW, Australia. Following collection and mapping of carpophores and isolation of the fungi into axenic culture, genomic DNA was extracted and combined data from RAPD and microsatellite analyses used to identify and map mycelial individuals. Thirty-three genetically distinct individuals were recognized at the field site and, while one large individual (at least 30 m diam.) was identified, most individuals appeared relatively small (<3 m diam.). The size and distribution of individuals is discussed in relation to growth of P. tinctorius mycelia through soil.