Podosphaera tridactyla (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) is a morphologically variable species occurring on Prunus s. lat. In order to assess the genetic variation within this species, the rDNA ITS region was amplified from 29 specimens from a range of Prunus species collected in Australia, Switzerland, and Korea. RFLP analysis of the PCR products revealed six groups, and a comparison of sequences from representatives of these groups revealed three clades: Clade 1 contained all specimens from Prunus subgen. Prunus; Clade 2 specimens from a variety of Prunus subgenera, except subgen. Prunus, and Podosphaera longiseta was closely allied to this clade; and Clade 3 contained two specimens, from Japan and Korea. Phylogenetic analysis comparing P. tridactyla with of a range of Podosphaera species suggests that P. tridactyla is paraphyletic.