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The diversity and vertical transmission of double-stranded (ds) RNA in Helicobasidium mompa and Rosellinia necatrix was examined by electrophoresis and Northern hybridization. These two fungi share the similar niche as root rot pathogens of trees in forests and orchards, and had diverse dsRNAs. The detection frequency of dsRNA in both fungi was different; in H. mompa, 68.4% (132 out of 193 MCGs; mycelial compatibility groups) had dsRNA, whereas 20.9% (53 out of 254 MCGs) in R. necatrix. dsRNA banding patterns and Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of various dsRNA elements in both fungi. Hyphal tip isolation was mostly unsuccessful to remove dsRNA with some exceptions. Sexual reproduction functioned to remove dsRNA in both fungi since dsRNA was not detected from single sexual spore cultures. Possible explanations for the difference in the detection frequency of dsRNA are discussed in terms of the differences in their sexual reproduction and other factors.