To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Singapore, located at the centre of Asia, is an ideal dynamic hub to converge advanced R & D and industry leaders, robust alliances, new technologies and world class infrastructure. In the field of nanotechnology, Singapore is equipped with state of the art facilities (one of the best in the world) for nanotechnology R & D and it has unique open research environment for encouraging and attracting international collaboration and industry cooperation. Combining its efficient government administration and international business and financial environment, Singapore is becoming an attractive place for setting up leading R & D centres, research and development partnerships for research institutions and industries, and for locating company regional headquarters. Singapore government is aggressively promoting innovation and launched attractive funding schemes in help fostering SMEs and spin offs from research institutions. Singapore government has committed SGD 13.55 Billion (USD10B) on R & D for the period of 2006-2010 (over 200% increase from the previous 5 year period), making Singapore GERD to 3% of GDP by 2010. Singapore is not only a melting point of diverse cultures but most importantly a place for exciting converging technologies, global partnerships and creates growth nanotech industries. In this article we give an overview on the Singapore public and private financing schemes for nanotech R & D and commercialisation. Incentives for supporting start-ups as well as R & D partnerships with research institutes are summarized. We outlined the world-class infrastructure for nanotech R & D. Summary of nanotech R & D efforts are highlighted.
Micro tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have many desirable advantages compared to general SOFC. Recently, microtubualr SOFC are now studied to apply into APU system in a future generation vehicles. In this study, electrochemical and mechanical properties of the micro tubular SOFCs (less than 1 mm O.D.) have been characterized. Electrochemical characterization showed the excellent performance of MT SOFC with the power density of 1 W/cm2 at 600°C. Impedance measurement indicated that the contribution of contact resistance on the cell performance was still high and there were many possibilities to improve the cell performance. Mechanical test of the MT-SOFC using burst testing apparatus indicated the mechanical properties were mainly dependent on porosity and wall thickness, i.e. physical properties of anode support. This study examined the properties of micro-tubular SOFC using the novel characterization method for APU application.
The objective of this research is to develop a “point-of-care” device for early disease diagnosis through protein biomarker characterization. Here we present label-free, high sensitivity detection of proteins with the use of electrical immunoassays that we call Nanomonitors. The basis of the detection principle lies in the formation of an electrical double layer and its perturbations caused by proteins trapped in a nanoporous alumina membrane over a microelectrode array platform. High sensitivity and rapid detection of two inflammatory biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) in pure and clinical samples through label-free electrical detection were achieved. The performance metrics achieved by this device makes it suitable as a “lab-on-a-chip” device for protein biomarker profiling and hence early disease diagnosis.
In modern society there is an almost insatiable demand for ever increasing storage capacities in computers and consumer electronics. Magnetic recording is the dominant storage technology and the hard disk, due to its versatility, is becoming a pervasive device in various applications. The soaring demand arises from data-intensive computer applications, including graphics, animation, multimedia and desktop publishing, to which can be added a growing market for non-PC consumer devices such as set-top boxes, cameras, mobile phones, laser printers and satellite navigation systems. In response to this demand the hard disk drive manufacturers have come forward with spectacular increase in storage capacities and densities over the last decade. It is currently projected that the evolution of conventional perpendicular recording storage density in the hard disk industry will reach a limit of 500 Gbit/in2, while further progress will require major breakthroughs and alternative technologies.
In this presentation we will review the state-of-the-art in magnetic recording media and we will discuss the future approaches to reach densities in excess of 1 Tbit/in2 densities along the three axes : a) self-assembled coercive nanoparticles, b) exchange spring media and percolated media, and c) bit-patterned media (nanoscale patterning). This entails resolving several conflicting requirements with regard to signal to noise ratio (SNR) , writability and thermal stability of these new promising systems.
This paper analyzes the main challenges nanotech start-ups face in turning nanotech inventions into valuable and marketable nanotech innovations, also considering that nanotechnology discoveries could represent “inventions of methods of inventing” (Rothaermel et al., 2007). In the last decades, nanotechnologies have been a burgeoning area of science and engineering which show an increasing potential to transform a broad range of industries, and to boost the US and European firms' competitiveness (OECD, 1998). Although these emerging technologies share some problems with new ventures in other emerging industries ( e.g. biotech), nanotechnology firms have to balance the management of high technical and high market risk, still evolving regulatory frameworks (Bowman et al. 2006) and strategies for entering the business network and for attracting investments, e.g. in the form of potential venture capitalists. Potential investors, in turn, will face the well-known hurdle of the due diligence, considering for example health or safety concerns, manufacturing, availability of distribution channels, etc. (Burden, 2007).We propose that configuring their network and choosing the right market segment are the key strategies nanotech ventures should adopt in pushing their early growth in the global market. We analyze a sample of 15 European nanotech firms which confirm our predictions. Due to the novelty of the topic covered in this study, this research is exploratory in nature.
A perpetual increase in population and thus consumption of fossil fuels has led to increased pollution worldwide. Pollution in large metropolitan cities has reached an alarming level and is widely believed to be the leading contributor to chronic and deadly health disorders and diseases affecting millions of people each year. Although correlation between environmental pollution and global warming is debatable, the effects of pollution and its impact on human health are irrefutable and highly observable. Use of nanomaterials to generate energy, in an attempt to reduce environmental pollution, is in its preliminary stages and requires urgent and detailed investigation. This investigation focuses on three aspects of sustainability, (a): use of nanomaterials to monitor, detect, and remediate the environmental pollution, (b): responsible manufacturing of nanomaterials by employing principles of “green chemistry”, and (c): to drastically reduce waste and emission by-products employing use of nanomaterials as catalysts for enhanced efficiency. The synthesis of nanomaterials is accomplished by processes employing processes such as electrospinning, sol-gel, and MAPLE to drastically reduce and isolate emission and waste by-products. An exhaustive overview of the scope of our investigation and some specific applications relating to the use of nanomaterials in environmental friendly investigations, viz.; applications of nanomaterials as catalysts for enhanced efficiency, materials in CO2 sequestration, remediation of toxic metals in water streams, efficient thin film photovoltaic devices, fuel cells, and biodegradable consumable products is described. Fate and transport of nanomaterials in air, water, and soil; life-cycle analysis, and methodologies to conduct risk-assessment in the context of source reduction and conservation is discussed as a step towards sustainability.
Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites.
For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment.
Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest zA/zC ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.