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X-ray Microscopy of Polymeric Materials

  • H. Adel (a1), B. Hsiao (a2), G. Mitchell (a3), E. Rightor (a4), A. P. Smith (a1) and R. Cieslinski (a2)...

Abstract

We describe how the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at Brookhaven National Laboratory can be used to investigate the bulk characteristics of polymeric materials with chemical sensitivity at a spatial resolution of about 50 nm. We present examples ranging from unoriented multiphase polymers to highly oriented Kevlar fibers. In the case of oriented samples, a dichroism technique is used to determine the orientation of specific chemical bonds. Extension of the technique to investigate surfaces of thick samples is discussed.

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1. For a review of the established methods and developments over the last decade, see X-ray Microscopy, Schmahl, G. and Rudolf, D., eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1984), X-ray Microscopy II, D. Sayre, M. Howells, J. Kirz, and H. Rarback, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1988), and X-ray Microscopy III, A. Michette, G. Morrison, and C. Buckley, eds. (Springer, Berlin 1992).
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11. The absolute energy calibration is not known to better than about 0.5 eV for these data. Energies quoted to a “precision” better than 0.5 eV are therefore only relevant in the context of energy differences within the short time of the same experiment and sample. Since NEXAFS imaging and micro-spectroscopy are new operating modes of the XI-STXM, in the beginning we did not have the necessary procedures in place to easily calibrate the monochromator with sufficient energy resolution. In addition, during acquisition of the spectra of Figs. 2 and 4, the X 1A monochromator did not have a linear energy scale.
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